Censorship by definition is the prohibiting of words, images or ideas that are "offensive" to others. I feel that the laws governing film censorship should be more versatile. The teenagers of today are becoming more mature and adult-like at an earlier age. They are taught about the dangers of sex as well as drugs in Enrichment or in Personal and Social Education (P.S.E) and know more about certain subjects than adults today would have known when they were younger. I feel therefore it is ridiculous not to allow them to see films containing sex, drugs and violence on TV or at the cinema, until they are 18. In my opinion teenagers today are clearly mature enough to see these films at the age of 16, which is when they are able to finish their secondary education. At this stage they will have been taught everything they need to know. My main argument is that I feel that the laws on the classification of films are outdated. I believe that the 18 certificate and the 15 certificate should be abolished and replaced by a 16 certificate. This means that they will be able to see the films that they are (in my opinion) mature enough to see. My main argument is that I feel the laws surrounding film classification are outdated. Censorship by definition is the prohibiting of words, images or ideas that are "offensive" to others. I feel that the laws governing film censorship should be more versatile. The teenagers of today are becoming more mature and adult-like at an earlier age. They are taught about the dangers of sex as well as drugs in Enrichment or in Personal and Social Education (P.S.E) and know more about certain subjects than adults today would have known when they were younger. I feel therefore it...
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Struggling through poor articulation, here's an attempt to argue against the dominant view of society on the subject of street vandalism--which I like to call habitat re-decoration--expressed nicely by an anonymous conservative web-site: Graffiti is a crime. Graffiti is vandalism. Graffiti is not art. The same web-site went on to say that graffiti damages surfaces to the point of permanently changing the character of the surface and the character of the neighborhood. This restructuring of ones environment is at the heart of the appeal of graffiti. Without much of the usual, criminal anti-establishment rhetoric I'll discuss street art, focusing mainly on stencils, and it's validity as art. Of course how can one discuss illegal art without criticizing the system that makes it illegal? A good tag can be just as stimulating and moving as a Durer or Picasso and just as confusing as a Duchamp. And it's really the wondering why that moves me when I look at a piece. Why did the artist do this? What is he or she, this anonymous criminal, trying to tell me. The term "graffiti" derives from the Greek graphein ("to write") meaning a drawing or scribbling on a flat surface, originally referring to marks found on ancient Roman architecture. Although examples of graffiti have been found scattered across the globe from Pompeii to the Maya site of Tikal in Mesoamerica. Presently these marks range from simple lines on bathroom walls to complex, colorful, multi-layered compositions covering entire buildings. An important aim of street art is to reawaken a sense of wonder about our urban environment. Seemingly meaningless stencils or free-style graffiti attempt to stimulate curiosity and bring people to question both the art and their relationship with their surroundings. Can a wall be an empty canvass? A complex colorful tag provides a free, light-hearted...
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Cartoons were always enjoyment for people and there are many different types of cartoons and animations. Asian animation has developed way differently than western countries. Anime, Japanese animation, is very popular in Japan, and now it has gained a followings in America and is beginning to hit the mainstream. But the America's lack of understanding about other country led to very bad stereotypes and wrong impressions about Asian animation. Those stereotypes come when they do not know well about Asian animations. Also, other Asian Animations are improving and become better and better everyday. They are not that many nations producing as good quality animation as Japanese. But there still are few Asian countries making many animations and they all have their own styles. Japan is a leading Asian animation country and making best animations in the world. Japanese animation is called 'Anime?and present days the Anime is very popular in whole world. Anime has started very long ago, first Japanese animation was produced during 1917 and Osamu Tezuka, a qualified doctor, created the first anime in Japan in 1951. "Tetsuwan Atom? or "Astro Boy?as it was known elsewhere, marked the advent of Anime. Even though it is not as good quality and advanced as Anime, Korean animation is second greatest Asian animation producing country. First Korean animation started 1956. Korea first official contacted with Japanese anime in late 1970's to early 1980's by anime called "Great Mazinga.?This started the anime boom in Korea and it influenced Korean animations. Korean animation and Japanese anime is very close each other. Korean animation learned technologies and styles from Japanese anime. Other Asian countries are not really onto animation. Hong Kong or Taiwan has their great looking comic books, but they do not have their animation. There are great difference between the western animations and Asian animation. For example, Disney is most famous western animation in the world, and Anime is most well known Asian animation. Major difference is the unique Japanese anime...
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Japanese anime is a visual art style that has become increasingly popular in western culture over the past five decades. The recent explosion of anime shows has caused concern by American parents over the violence and sexual content that is occasionally exhibited in episodes that are loosely edited. Mainstream anime that is heavily edited has also caused pandemonium, mainly by the anime otaku (fan base) in America who are accustomed to viewing anime in its full and unedited form. Even though it is good that parents are concerned about what their children are viewing, I personally believe that anime should have the same right as any other American program to be shown on television, or at least be sold in stores, as an unedited art form. The main reason for the debate over anime content stems from the differences between Japanese and American culture. The Japanese are a bit more lenient as far as censorship goes. The Japanese government adopted most of its constitutional basis ironically from the United States after World War II and strongly exercises a right similar to the First Amendment. Much of the content seen in Japanese media has been lightly, if at all, censored. Only recently has the Japanese government attempted to make laws and obscenity codes concerning child pornography and depiction of pubic hair and genitals (Reyes). The American government, however, has had no clear definition of obscenity. In spite of this, any material that contains objectionable material is usually subject to be censored to some degree. Anime is considered to be a serious art form in Japan, and a good percentage of shows and manga (comic books) are of visual artistry. Many Americans who know little about anime view these shows as strictly cartoons for children, and a lot of the time they are...
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Art is expression. It comes in many forms and is used in many ways. Coexisting with society (which forces us to conform to its "strictly business" style), is a "no holds barred" type of counterculture. In response to society's dress codes, standards, and unwritten laws, a counterculture of tattoos, piercings, alternative hair-styles and clothing styles flourishes in every downtown, fashion runway, modern record, and popular magazine, and is spreading quickly to the bodies and closets of today's youth. The art forms of counterculture are pushing the social envelope and are on the cutting edge of controversy. Tattoos and peircings have been present for many years in many cultures, but today they are controversial forms of art. In a society based on practicality with a slight influence of creativity, these expressive art forms are placing a social stigma on those who display their artwork. Many people, especially older members of our American society, seem to think that tattoos are low-class and represent a lack of intelligence. In many cultures, as it should be in our own, tattoos and peircings are symbols of status, past events, and a form of expression. Kids are learning at a young age what is and is not acceptable and they begin blurring the lines of acceptability with controversial t-shirts, hair styles, and parental advised-cd's. The youth of today want to be able to express themselves; they want a voice and a right to their opinion. Kids are expressing and rebelling through art in many forms. Art has always been a form of rebellion and is necessary to individuals. A tattoo, for instance, is not just a way to rebel and anger parents; it is a medium of nonverbal expression. People tattoo beliefs, events, memorials, and pieces of art on themselves for reasons sometimes known only by the individual....
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A critical political economy can be defined as a theory that identifies a socially critical approach that focuses primarily on the relation between the economic structure and dynamics of media industries and the ideological content of media (McQuail, 2000, p. 82). McQuail (2000, p. 82) adds that it directs attention to the empirical of the structure of ownership and control of media and the way media market forces operate. The argument that political economy is concerned with the macro-questions of media ownership and control is further supported by Boyd-Barrett and Newbold (1995, p. 186), who state that Vincent Mosco defines political economy as 'the study of social relations, particularly power relations, that mutually constitute the production, distribution and consumption of resources including communication resources, but in its more ambitious form, it is the study of control and survival of social life'. Golding and Murdock (1991, p. 18) defines critical political economy along the same line, stating that while mainstream economics sees the 'economy' as a separate and specialised domain, critical political economy is interested in the interplay between economic organisation and political, social and cultural life. News Industries Ownership From the definitions above, political economy can be summarized as the study of natural laws governing the production and the distribution of wealth in order to create an apt social equilibrium. In short, it can be considered that a political economy approach is mainly for the greater good of the people, or as derived to be so by the powers that be. It explores questions of who owns and who controls the institution of economy, society and culture. In other words, whilst media analysis would study the media text itself in order to determine its content and/or possible meanings, a political economy approach to studying the media would be more interested in looking how economic...
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Theories of Resistance in Sigmund Freud and Paul de Man Freud and de Man both outline theories of resistance in interpretation- the former in his work The Interpretations of Dreams and the latter in his essay "The Resistance to Theory". By extension Freud's definition of the "dream" can be thought of as the literary text, and the retelling of this dream or literary text, as the "reading" of the text. It is through the relationship of the patient's retelling/reading and the psychoanalyst that the interpretation of this text/dream comes into being. There are many parallels and incongruities within the resistance theories named by Freud and de Man such as: the basic problem of retelling and reading of the dream/text, the influence of censorship on the interpretation, the pressures of resistance to interpretation and the notion of the "obvious" meaning. De Man and Freud attempt to illuminate the problems of interpretations in different modes. De Mann moves for a shift from hermeneutics to semiotics, and calls for a restructuring of the trivium where emphasis is placed on reading the structure of the text, while Freud looks to restructure the mechanisms of the unconscious through psychoanalysis, that impede interpretation. One major parallel between De Man and Freud's theories of resistance is the reading/ retelling of the dream and the text. According to de Mann, the current problem with textual analysis lies in the reading. The classical linguistic model of the trivium scientifically categorizes language into three parts according to "grammar", "rhetoric" and "logic". These three parts function interdependently with one another and are in conflict and it is the rhetorical side which has won out- for now. Grammar and logic are related to the empirical aspect of language, that which is both measurable and tangible. De Man privileges this empirical aspect and calls for...
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The novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury can be compared to the novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The main character in Bradbury's novel, Guy Montag, has many similarities to Atticus Finch from To Kill A Mockingbird. Both of these men risk their lives to stand up for what they believe in. They both go against the normal beliefs of society, and think for themselves. Although the overall themes of these books are very different, they both center on the general beliefs of the public, and their inability to see things for what they truly are. In Harper Lee's novel, the public do not see that their racism is wrong, because they were taught to believe that African Americans are inferior to whites. The people in Fahrenheit 451 do not see that books are good for their souls, because they were taught to believe that they should all think alike, instead of having books to spark debate, or to influence their minds. First, Guy Montag is a fireman who starts fires instead of putting them out. The society in which he lives focuses on the burning of books to avoid conflicting opinions. They do not read books, think on their own, or go outside and enjoy nature. Instead, they spend their time watching TV, and listening to the radio. After Montag meets Clarisse, he realizes how empty his life is, and he recognizes the faults of his society. When he becomes curious of the books which he is supposed to be burning, he finds himself risking everything he has to find out more. Atticus Finch lives in a southern community of racist people. Although he himself is not racist, he finds himself trying to deter his children from the faults of their town. He is a lawyer who is...
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1984 Review Word Count: 921 1984 is a story about dictators who are in complete control of a large part of the world after the Allies lost in World War II. The government in this novel gives no freedoms to its citizens. They live in fear because they are a 2 Types Of Ther 2 Types Of Therapies Word Count: 528 There are many different types of therapies or psychological methods used to alleviate problems. First, there are therapies that emphasize the value of gaining insight to personal problems. Then there are behavior thera A Character Ana A Character Analysis Of The Many Facets Of Pearl In The Scarlett Letter Word Count: 1582 A Character Analysis of the Many Facets of Pearl The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a book of much symbolism. One of the most complex and misunderstood symbo A Review Of Psy A Review Of Psychology Articles Word Count: 4180 In this paper I will review four articles, one movie, and one experiment conducted in class. The issue's all this information covers is sex differences and the degree to which they exists in men and women an Abortion Abortion Word Count: 2428 Birth Control or Legal Murder?Approximately 1.6 million murders are committed legally each year. Withthe exception of laws in few states, the mutilated bodies of the victims arethrown into dumpsters like pieces of rotten meat. Whi Abusive Parents Abusive Parents Word Count: 428 Researchers at the University of Toronto have taken important steps toward producing a profile of an abusive parent. Prof. Gary Walters and doctoral student Lynn Oldershaw of the Department of Psychology have developed a sys add reaction essay add reaction essay add reaction essay: I chose this topic because being a young person I personally know a good amount of people who have ADD and are treated with the drug Ritalin, and at one...
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Discuss the free speech justifications for cross-media ownership laws in Australia and consider whether these laws are relevant in the age of increasingly diverse media sources. Consider the arguments for and against the current proposals for reform. When Paul Keating made his famous remark about restricting media barons power so they could only be 'Queens of the screen or Princes of Print', he was referring to the division of power under law that would make sure no-one media conglomerate could own both a newspaper and a television station in the one city. The emergence of a liberal government and changing societal structures has seen the debate about media cross-ownership raise its head again as parliament sees a proposal that would allow ownership across mediums. Proponents for the bill argue that free speech justifications are nonsensical in the age of increasingly diverse media sources, however those against the bill worry that it will create a monopoly and lead to an undesirable concentration of power in the hands of elites. The year Paul Keating uttered those fateful words, the landscape of media ownership was seemingly transformed. Since that time however, the powerful media moguls and organizations have sought to instigate a change in the media cross-ownership laws that would lift restrictions. In Australia, the three major media stakeholders are Kerry Packer, Rupert Murdoch with News Limited and the Fairfax Group (Pilger 1998). These three singular conglomerates combined, together produce the majority of media output in Australia. They form over 80% of magazines, newspapers and television that the public watch and therefore have a huge impact on shaping public opinion (Ward 1997). The proposed legislation that is being put forward by Communications Minister Senator Richard Alston would allow media moguls to be able to move across mediums and own both newspapers and television stations in the...
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