"Latchkey Kid" is a term that came into existence during World War II. It was used to describe the large number of youth who were left without direct adult supervision. During this period of time, most Americans were involved in the war effort. Many fathers were in military service and many mothers went to work outside of the home to support their families and help our country win the war. As a result, there were fewer adults available to watch younger children. Is this still a problem in society today? For twenty years following the end of the war, America experienced a period of great economic growth. Jobs were abundant and wages were good. Fathers could financially support their families and mothers usually stayed at home with their children. The phrase "latchkey kid" was seldom used during this period. But for the past twenty years, however, the phrase has been born again. The number of children left without supervision is now increasing with every year. Family instability, single parent homes, and two working parent households are on the rise. More children have less supervision today than ever before. The growing number of latchkey kids and the rising number of problems children must face has created great concern among parents and other professionals. They have begun to seek answers to a number of important questions. What are the effects of leaving young children to care for themselves before they are emotionally ready? How can we ensure the safety of children who care for themselves? Only recently have these questions began to seek national attention. According to the U.S. Department of Labor ( Essence magazine ), 30% of mothers with children under age 13 allowed their children to stay home alone after school. However, only 1% of these mothers reported that they would leave their...
pages: 6 (words: 1567)
Subject: The Evolution of Theoretical Knowledge A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE FOUR CONCEPTS OF THE NURSING METAPARADIGM Introduction The four concepts of the nursing metaparadigm as described in Orem's theory are: Person Environment Health Nursing My perspective of the four concepts has changed somewhat after studying Orem's theory. My thoughts of the "Person" have become more focussed on to one that is the recipient of nursing care only when they cannot administer self-care. My view of the "Environment" now includes a developmental environment. My previous understanding of "Health" did not include such emphasis on health promotion and health maintenance. My view of "Nursing" now includes the understanding of the importance of nursing theory as applied to practice settings and in the development of nursing as a profession. Person Orem describes the person as a patient; an individual functioning biologically, socially and symbolically. She describes the person as having the capacity to learn and develop, has the capacity for self-knowledge and is capable of engaging in deliberate actions to meet their self- care requirements for the maintenance of health. She also states that if the individual is incapable of taking care of him / herself, then others must provide the care. The others in this case can be the nurse or a family member. She states that individuals are subject to the forces of nature. Orem through her theory self care deficit has put forth the idea that people can benefit from nursing because they are subject to health related limitations that render them incapable of continuous self-care. Wesley (1992). In other words when the individual's health breaks down for whatever reason, the nurse is there to come to the rescue by doing what is in her power to help the health related problem either on her own or with the collaboration with other health care professionals. Orem's definitions have crystallized my...
pages: 7 (words: 1814)
Tone is the reflective attitude the poet attempts to evoke in her reader. When a person speaks they are able to bring to mind both a literal meaning (denotation) as well as a connotative meaning. The connotation of a sentence spoken is noted by "body language, intonation, word choice and many other subtle nuances that allows the speaker to effect a desired reaction from her listener. The poet must use word choices, placement, hyperbole, metaphor, paradox, irony, and satire to place the reader into the mental mood that will give more credence to her chosen subject. I am a proud member of a group of poets who are as diverse as any one could meet in a world as diverse as the one we all share. I have chosen to use the works of some of the poets to illustrate the use of those tools of tone a poet must master to allow the "feelings" she has to be projected to their readers. TONE The poet's or persona's attitude in style or expression toward the subject, e.g., loving, ironic, bitter, pitying, fanciful, solemn, etc. Tone can also refer to the overall mood of the poem itself, in the sense of a pervading atmosphere intended to influence the readers' emotional response and foster expectations of the conclusion. Sidelight: In spoken language we recognize tone by inflections of the voice and by the demeanor of the speaker; in poetry, tone is conveyed through the use of connotation, diction, figures of speech, rhythm and other elements of poetic construction. (Compare Content, Form, Motif, Style, Texture) CONSONANCE A pleasing combination of sounds; sounds in agreement with tone. Also, the close repetition of the same end consonants of stressed syllables with differing vowel sounds, such as boat and night, or the words drunk and milk in the final line of Coleridge's "Kubla...
pages: 3 (words: 736)
Change whether is be physical, emotional, spiritual or mental, is an inevitable and transforming experience which has the ability to be viewed as either positive or negative depending on the individuals perception of change. Change and change in self is a process that occurs from the day we are conceived and continues until the day we die. Nothing is constant, even the few perpetual processes that we undertake in life, such as birth and death, are unpredictable. The one consistency of change is that it will eventually occur and similarly the effects of change are just as inevitable as the change itself. In exploring change in self we consider texts such as the door, sky high and fractals from the Changing Stimulus Booklet, the film American History X by Tony Kay, the poems Barnowl and Nightfall by Gwen Harwood and the song Inspiration by John Butler Trio. These texts use language and film techniques to shape this meaning of change and change in self. In the various texts noted above the changes that occurred to individuals perspective, attitudes, surroundings and ultimately themselves were brought on largely by external influences, usually in the form of a dramatic realization or by a series of smaller discoveries. In the short story Sky-High by Hannah Roberts, the external force that influenced her change in self was brought on due the fact that she has aged and matured. The washing line in this short reflective piece, as the narrator remembers her childhood experiences, symbolizes the changes in ones life and the strength of memories. We see this throughout the story with the use of metaphors, e.g. "The best climbing tree in the yard, stood proud on a mound of concrete." The metaphor here describes the washing line as a tree that she can climb, rather than...
pages: 11 (words: 2805)
Through the study of change in self, the concept of changing self can mean a complicated process which often involves a dynamic process of development, but sometimes change in self is triggered by traumatic experiences which can either hinder or hasten this process. This aspect of change is evident in several poems by Gwen Harwood, the film "The Matrix", Peter Goldworthy's novel "Maestro" and the short story "Sky High" by Hannah Robert. In the poem the "glass jar" the young boy's innocence is usurped when he is introduced to the complexity of the sexual relationship. Harwood's use of music i.e. "score" is to represent a spiritual dimension: an emotional world where the boy cannot comprehend and no child can be part of. The persona's inability to comprehend what he had witnesses, added with his fear of night creatures which he tried to dispel by capturing light in a jar " to exorcize monsters that whispering would rise nightly from the intricate wood that ringed his bed" further intensified his horror and loss of innocence and faith. The use of religious imagery and biblical allusions in the poem; mainly in the 1st and 2nd stanzas represented the child's faith in the sun i.e. religion. The title itself is a religious term "The Glass Jar", a symbol of innocence. Also the religious term "resurrected" in the last stanza is used to describe that the sun's return is ironic because the child has lost his faith. The boy has experienced a change in self as a result of his confronting experience and has changed from innocent and naïve child growing to understand and accept what life entails. Harwood's poem "Father and child" also sees a change in self of the narrator which is triggered by a traumatic experience. The pivotal point in the first section 'Barn owl"...
pages: 5 (words: 1166)
In conclusion, it can be argued that Harwood shows changes in lives both in terms of the situations in which she places the speakers and other central individuals in her poems, and also in the symbols and images she uses to reveal and emphasise their expeEnglish
Gwen Harwood's poetry show's change in self through a particular situation, and is enhanced by symbols and images. In her three poems 'In the Park', 'Prize Giving' and 'The Glass Jar', Harwood places the central individual in circumstances that amount to change. These circumstances act as a catalyst for the change in self that occurs. Harwood also adopts the use of symbols and imagery to reveal and emphasise the experiences of the individuals. This, paired with the use of several poetic techniques allows for change in self to occur. Harwood's 'In the Park' outlines a particular incident in a woman's life and is complemented by the use of symbols and images. In the poem the woman is in the park with her three children when she encounters an ex-lover. This ex-lover is a symbol of the woman's past and can be seen through the interest and vibrancy of the conversation that takes place. 'It's so sweet / to hear their chatter, I watch them grow and thrive'. This light positive manner contrasts greatly with the thoughts of the woman in her present situation. Short sentences as well as content reveal this cynical, negative attitude. "From his neat head unquestionably rises / a small balloon…'But for the grace of God…'" The symbol of the man representing the woman's past allows for contrast and reveals the change that has taken place since the woman has given birth to her children. A second change is portrayed in the poem and is a result of the situation the woman is put in. Her life is somewhat drab and dull and can be seen with Harwood's assonance of the 'I' sound in the first stanza, 'whine and bicker, tug her skirt'. The woman, obviously embarrassed by the situation, 'too late to feign indifference to that casual nod',...
pages: 5 (words: 1287)
Emerson's Thinking Patterns in "Self Reliance" Ralph Waldo Emerson is one of the well educated people who lived in the period before the civil war. He wrote several meaningful literary pieces such as "Compensation" and "Spiritual Laws." But his essay titled " Self-Reliance" is truly insightful regarding the way that nature affects man. Emerson thought that every natural fact was a symbol of some spiritual fact, and they it was all interconnected. Every appearance in nature corresponded to some state of the mind and nature could seriously alter ones mood and ones relationship with God, and one's inner self. Transcendentalists were a group of writers trying to be different. They were in a sense rebelling against something. "These people, mostly New Englanders, mostly around Boston, were attempting to create a uniquely American body of literature. It was already decades since the Americans had won independence from England. Now, these people believed, it was time for literary independence. And so they deliberately went about creating literature, essays, novels, philosophy, poetry, and other writing that were clearly different from anything from England, France, Germany, or any other European nation (Lewis 1)." Transcendentalists are sometimes considered bonified hippies. But is what they stand for so wrong? Beauty, nature, being in touch with oneself? As long as we realize that all of those things come from God and God alone, then what transcendentalism is is a beautiful view on the world and religion. God created the world, and everything in it. How can what He created be anything but beautiful? It can't. Beauty is of God....
pages: 1 (words: 262)
Refugee Children In Canada: Searching For Identity The authors of the article analyze the broad variety of stresses and hardships facing refugee children in Canada, as a result of their past. As defined by the UN, refugees are persons (children or adults), who are residing outside of their countries and cannot return due to a well-founded fear of persecution, because of their race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Canada, as one of the few countries in the world with an active and permanent immigration policy, has a longstanding humanitarian tradition towards refugees. Persons, who were not born in Canada, make up more than 17% of the Canadian population (this is much higher than approximately 10% in the U.S., which is traditionally perceived as an immigrant country), with more than 11% belonging to a visible minority groups. In the years 1995-1999, more than 300,000 immigrant children were resettled in Canada, with approximately 15% refugees. Children of immigrants and refugees share some similar characteristics. For both group migration and settlement in a new country are major disruptions of their lives. Children in both groups very often find themselves torn between the new world of school and the old world of home. As such, they must perform a role of "cultural interpreters", bridging the old and the new worlds for their parents. At the same time, the children of immigrants and refugees might encounter discrimination and racism in the new society. This could lead to a situation, when the children do not belong to any culture: neither the new one they are trying to adopt, nor the old one left behind. There exist a number of characteristics that differentiate children of refugees from the children of other immigrants, affecting their adaptation to the new society. First, refugees' children often experienced traumatic...
pages: 3 (words: 772)
Child Labor is a continuing and complex issue. It is a pervasive problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. There are many reasons that contribute to the issue of child labor. There is no international agreement defining child labor and this makes the limits very ambiguous. Although most nations have some type of restrictions, many have different minimum age requirements and varying regulations based on the type of labor. At what point does helping the family out become work? Also adding to the complexity of the issue, is the fact that governments are not keen to measure and report on a phenomenon that is officially not supposed to exist. Until there is global agreement that can isolate cases of child labor, it will be very hard to abolish. Therefore as a society we need to recognize and improve the conditions in which children are operating. The International Labor Organization reports that global figures in child labor estimate 250 million children in the workforce. This number not only excludes children in the industrialized world but also does not measure the child workers hidden from the statistician's view. Children that are working in unmonitored informal and rural sectors and girls that are doing domestic work are examples of the children not being accounted for. Including such numbers would push the total up to near 500 million. Africa and Asia together account for over 90 percent of total child employment. While the most extreme examples of exploitative child labor tend to come from Asia, an African child is more likely to work. Asia is led by India, which had 44 million child laborers, giving it the largest child workplace in the world. In Pakistan, 10 percent of all workers are between the ages10 and 14. Nigeria has 12 million child workers. It is...
pages: 4 (words: 866)
How does Harper lee present childhood in the book To Kill A Mocking Bird? The book is supposed to be written from a child's point of view on their surroundings but an adult writes it from a child's imagination and thoughts. Scout is telling the story and she seems to be very literate and knowledgeable about things. However the book seems to give the impression that she is very intelligent. Jem, Scout and dill are the most important and lead children in the book. Throughout to kill a mocking bird they are seen getting into mischief and you will see the process of them gradually maturing. One of their most played upon fantasies is Boo Radley. In the book they go through stages were they are so wrapped up in the mysterious side of the Radley's home that they become addicted. There are many different ways that they get into Boo Radley's mysterious life inside his house. As children they have very wild imaginations. They make up a game of his life story. They all have different parts to play in his life story and with their imaginations they create a great atmosphere. However like all children they go through stages and soon, after the many tellings off for interfering with Boo and disturbing his peace they manage to forget about Boo Radley. This is the same when Dill talks to Jem and Scout about hot steams. Dill seems to lie about most things that he has experienced including information about his father that no one seems to know anything about. He has the wildest imagination and this could be due to the amount of freedom he has. Harper lee gives the impression that they are happy children and have what they want and everything that they need. The children have quite...
pages: 3 (words: 776)