Classical music is known as a serious kind of music whereas Contemporary music is known as “popular”, “folk”, or “light” kind of music. Classical music is music, which ‘must be written down, or at least performable away from its original composer.’ and must also ‘maintain its ability to communicate and entertain listeners over decades, and even centuries.’ (David Hurwitz, 2003, Internet resource) Comparing it with Contemporary music, it is found that Contemporary music is often recorded or written down vaguely as long as the major pattern can be recognized. Contemporary music is often played by other musicians where improvisation or rubato occurred most of the time, but Classical music are never improvised. According to Jan Vièar, classical music is also known as: ‘serious music, independent music, composed (as opposed to improvised) music.’ (Prague: Academia, 1981, Music and its terminological system) These are the similarities of the two kinds of music. First of all, similar instruments which can be used for both kinds of music are piano, harpsichord, wood wind, brass, string, guitar, vocal and orchestral. It is found that a composer usually composed his or her masterpiece after experiencing certain memorable moment. There was also music that was composed with dedications to their love ones. I grouped these as personal goals as their objectives. Both Classical and Contemporary music are sometimes composed with objective of personal goals. I found great difference than similarities between Classical and Contemporary music. Classical music is originated somewhere since 1600 and it has gone through a total of 5 periods: The Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic and Contemporary periods whereas earliest records of Contemporary music were found after the existence of Classical music. (Author unknown, Internet article) It is clearly understood that Classical music is categorized by its period. It can also be categorized by the composer’s name...
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The Baroque era extended from late Renaissance and early Classical periods between 1600 and 1750. The origin of the term "baroque" comes from Portuguese and refers to an "irregular shaped pearl". The era of Baroque music was an age of brilliant progress of knowledge. It was also known for the age of the scientific discoveries of Galileo and Newton, and advances in math of Descartes, Newton, and Leibnitz. Baroque time period included production of some of the greatest music of all time. There was three periods in Baroque music. In early Baroque style two ideas prevailed; one is the opposition to counterpoint and the most violent interpretation of the words, realized in the emotional recitative in free rhythm. The harmony was experimental and pre-tonal. Vocal music was in the leading position. In the formation of the Baroque style Italy represented only one limit, which influenced primarily in the development of vocal monody. The other pole was England, which influenced the development of abstract instrumental style that spread all over the Europe. The middle Baroque period brought all the bel-canto style in the cantata and opera, and with it the distinction between aria and recitative. Musical forms began to grow and contrapuntal quality was reinstituted. Chord progression was governed by an undeveloped tonality along with modes that were reduced to major and minor. The last period, which is the late Baroque style, is different by a fully established tonality that helped to regulate chord progressions, dissonance treatment, and the formal structure. The contrapuntal technique culminated in the full combination of tonal harmony. Also the concerto style appeared with emphasis on mechanical rhythm. Vocal music was now dominated by instrumental music. However, the modern revival of Baroque music is limited almost exclusively to works in late Baroque period. The idea of dualism is probably what...
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The geographical center of the Baroque Era was Europe, with Italy as the place of origin with the movement later spreading throughout Europe via Germany, France and England. Music was the main source of pastimes, with the lower class making up most of the musicians and composers. As these people climbed in fame however, they were given substantial pay increases, but they still remained servants with little or no rights at all. Many musicians were sons of musicians who were given as apprentices to town musicians to live in their homes in return for their servitude doing odd jobs and copying music for them. Women were not taught or allowed to perform as composers and artists in those days, even though a few did manage to become successful composers. Major influences in the coming of the Baroque era were the increased demands of the nobles and kings for entertainment. The church was also a contributing factor because they began to use the emotion and theatrics of art to make worship services more interesting. The major characteristics of the Baroque period were the discoveries and developments in science and mathematics (this was the age of Galileo and Newton). The Baroque era was divided into three periods, early (1600-1640), middle (1640-1680), and late (1680-1750). Most of the music we know today was produced in the late period but the major changes associated with the Baroque era took place in the early period. Composers of the early Baroque period strove to bring forth as much emotion and passion into their pieces as possible, they composed the music to very emotional pieces of drama, which was conveyed into the music. This was also the setting for the emergence of opera. Art of that period was also affected, and pictures came alive with even more depth than...
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As time goes by in music, style changes. Most societies are constantly learning to better themselves (with the acception of some cultures which purposefully stay at an ecomical plateau for the purpose of maintaining tradition and religion). Everyone would agree that music has changed since, say, the 19th century although not everyone would agree that that change is for the better. But with all these views and opinions aside, music is constantly in a state of change. I’m going to look at what causes these changes and specifically look at the evolution of the swing era. New Orleans, in the state of Louisiana, has been reknown for its contribution to Jazz. Many great Jazz musicians have been there in the past – Louis Armstrong, Freddie Keppard and Bill Johnson to name a few. It had a diverse cultural legacy of which music played a big part. Europeans brought over a lot of classical musicians as it was founded as a French Colony in 1718. It became part of America in 1803 during the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810, it was named the fifth largest U.S. city. 1861 marked the end of the American Civil War and in 1865, slavery was abolished against the will of the Con-federacy (Southern States). But during the war, the Union (Northern States) managed to take New Orleans and so black people therefore enjoyed freedom and had a headstart in the abolition of slavery. So New Orleans became a city where black people were free and the feeling was unique to the southern states. During the post-war reconstruction, troops were brought in. They brought their instruments with them and played military music during their work. When they left, they discarded their instruments on the streets for poor people, especially black people, to pick up and use. Out of this...
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Popular music is music that is enjoyed by the largest possible audience. It includes country music, folk music, rhythm and blues, jazz and rock'n'roll. Many things happened in the 1920's. First of all, radio was beginning to gain much power. Most of the songs of the 1920's were considered proper. There were also the conventional songs with ballads and old-fashioned waltzes. Overall, in that time where good songs and lyrics in popular music with much emphasis on the musical stage. Jazz had much musical freedom. It represented the way many people were feeling. Not everyone was smoking and drinking too much though. Many people still continued to lead highly respectable lives. The young people of the twenties were not experiencing the same kind of grief as the slightly older people. During this time big groups of jazz musicians started to play together. It was during the swing era and was known as the Big Band era. The songs were very optimistic and could bring up the mood of the listeners, who, at this time were very depressed. Swing music had a very loose feeling sound. It became more popular with the popularity of the radio. The great depression started in the 1930's. Because of this not many people could afford to buy records. But something new emerged out of the darkness. It was the radio. People could listen all they wanted, for free. People began to stop listening to the records and depended on their trusty radio. And not only could they tune into their favorite songs, but also hear the news and other forms of entertainment. During the thirties many people immigrated to the United States. With them they brought the music from their country. This had great influence on American music. Some immigrant composers taught music or performed in...
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The Structure and Style of Renaissance Music In the Renaissance period, composers began experimenting with harmony in their work. Imitative polyphony, monophonic solo and polychoral music was the main style in the Renaissance. Imitative polyphony is when all the voices in a piece of music move at the same speed and share the development of the piece in a way that later became known as Fugue. Polychoral music is similar to polyphony but is written for choirs, usually to be sung in church. Monophony is simply a solo piece with one line of music and, naturally, one voice. Medieval and Renaissance styles differ in the way the music is written as well, in the order it’s written. Medieval composers built the music up layer upon layer, whereas Renaissance composers often preferred to write all the parts simultaneously, and blend them together rather than contrast them. There is a lot of emphasis on texture in polyphony music. Specific instruments were chosen because they had a certain texture in their sound and the composer would use that texture to compliment other textures within the piece. Renaissance Instruments The Renaissance saw many new instruments as well as old ones remaining popular. Different composers preferred to write for different instruments predominantly, but the basic availability remained pretty much the same. These are the main instruments that were used in Renaissance music: The Lute The lute is the ancestor of the modern day guitar. It held the highest respect of all instruments during the Renaissance, both as an accompaniment and as a solo instrument. It could be played with a plectrum but the best lutenists used only their fingers, giving a very distinctive, very expressive sound. Although the greatest repertoire for the lute is from England, the finest lutes came from Italy. The delicacy of the sound is reflected in the light...
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Northern Indian classical music is one of the oldest forms of music to exist on this planet. North Indian classical music has such a history that it is said to have been dated back to the Vedas, which are the ancient scripts of the Hindus. It is much more than a form of entertainment; it is a defining element of Indian culture. Northern Indian music is based on sangeet, a combination of three traditional forms, including: vocal music, instrumental music, and dance. Each of these forms has developed into distinctive art forms. There are two main genres within Northern Indian Classical music, dhrupad and khayal. Dhrupad is the older of the two genres, and then there is khayal the contemporary genre, which is more popular presently. Acting as a foundation for both of these genres are two different musical entities, melody and rhythm. Melody in Northern Indian Classical music is primarily the silence of sound and how the artist or performer manipulates the space to create the art form. Melody is also embedded in the system called raga. There is also a rhythmic foundation that is found in tala. The raga system exemplifies musical moods which frame the time of year and day which are then outputted by the musical performer. The raga has many defining characteristics, it has to be based on ascending and descending formations of no less than five notes, the nature of each note must be definitive, the composition must have characterizing parts, the ascending and descending formation must also be definitive, and there must be an order within the notes themselves. The product of this framework allows for an easy realization of the melody within the piece of music. In an actual raga performance there are three main parts, Alap which is the first movement and is...
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When critically analyzed in respect to the earlier artists of the Classical music period, Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven's music and life are simultaneously shown to be an evolution as well as a break from his predecessors. No doubt due to the influence of Mozart, as well as his tutelage under Haydn, Beethoven inherited their Classical music legacy but did not keep it in stasis. His innovations within musical composition were built upon the artistic foundation of the previous masters. They showcase to further extent contrasts of moods, greater dynamics, increased power and intensity, as well as an overall ambition toward a grander scale than Haydn or Mozart aspired. At the same time, Beethoven's inspiration to create music and his struggle to elevate the societal position of the musician/composer composed a distinct break from the traditional European cultural function of a musician. This is understood in light of a lifetime that took in the political turbulence of the French Revolution as well as Enlightenment ideals concerning the nature of man. As such, very sharp distinctions from Haydn and Mozart occur that coexist with their lingering legacies within Beethoven. Classical musical structures and forms can be discerned within Beethoven's compositions, and as such he operates in the same rough musical framework utilized by Mozart and Haydn. The basic musical structures (sonata form, themes and variations, and rondo) plus the classical conceptions of a symphony and concerto are seen, but altered to permit greater passion and emotive might. One small, yet key, example is Beethoven's substitution of the scherzo for the minuet and trio as the 3rd movement of a symphony. Its rhythmic force and character flexibility opened new ways of displaying contrasting musical emotions in his music. Beethoven also tried to operate on a much grander scale, necessitated by...
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Does the language of Jazz differ from the language of other forms of music? Making reference to a particular work of Jazz and a piece from another genre, compare and contrast these pieces of music. Make reference to the form and structure within each work. The language of jazz is very different from (some) other forms of music, say classical music, because unlike classical music, which was, mainly written by the 'upper classes' for the 'upper classes', to be listened to as chamber music behind polite talk, or in a huge concert hall as an evening out; jazz came up from the black urban cultures; its influences of African slave music, and gospel, working class music. Jazz was the music of the bars and club, having come from the simple blues, and ragtime pieces of New Orleans, to become the sophisticated as it spread to New York, Paris and London becoming a social 'rage'; but even now it would seem odd to have a jazz concert in a well lit concert hall with everyone dressed up; jazz belongs to an 'under culture' and seems to have real power in the music when its heard in small, dark, smoky clubs. The two works I have chosen to compare are Artie Shaw's (Arthur Ashawsky) Concerto for Clarinet parts one and two and, J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto (grosso) No.4 in G, first movement. The large swing bands of the 30's were led by virtuoso instrumentalists like Benny Goodman, Glen Miller, and Artie Shaw. These 'bands' concentrated on precision and 'show case' works (such as Concerto for Clarinet), though standard repertoire came in for these bands (which were sometimes as big as orchestras) their members were often strong personalities, and always brilliant musicians, so improvisation still played a large part in the swing bands. The language of jazz...
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"Jazz is America's classical music," according to Dr. Billy Taylor, and while still rooted in the African-American experience, it is truly an international phenomenon. Jazz is a kind of music in which improvisation is typically an important part. In most jazz performances, players play solos which they make up on the spot, which requires a considerable amount of skill. There is tremendous variety in jazz, but most jazz is very rhythmic, has a forward momentum called "swing," and uses "bent" or "blue" notes. You can often hear "call--and--response" patterns in jazz, in which one instrument, voice, or part of the band answers another. Jazz can express many different emotions, from pain to pure joy. In jazz, you may even hear the sounds of freedom. In the past jazz music has been a powerful voice for people who were suffering unfair or even un human treatment, or because they lived under a cruel ruler or type of government The roots of jazz can be found in the sounds of West African drums and singing. Arising from their homelands by the slave industry, forbidden to play the drums or to speak their native languages the first African-Americans nonetheless kept and preserved a common idea from the establishment of African music. These ideas expressed themselves in America as field hollers, the blues, gospel music, and eventually jazz music. Today, the circle has been completed as American jazz musicians have traveled to Africa to share their music, in many cases finding new inspiration in the vitality of today's African music. While the roots of jazz are firmly rooted in Africa, the culture of America is largely rooted in Europe. Jazz musicians used the musical instruments available in America, which were largely of European origin. Jazz musicians heard European music and many were familiar with the musical theories of...
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