Joshua Reichmann Color Theory Interactive System Design Color is also known as hue. Each hue is a specific spot on the color spectrum. To work with color, there are different attributes you should know about: value, contrast and brightness, and saturation. The range from black to white is called value. Contrast is the degree of separation between values. Whereas brightness adds white to an image, the lack of brightness tones the image. Saturation is the measurement of color intensity. The lack of saturation is like a black and white television. The three additive primary colors – red, green, blue – were determined in 1861 by Scottish physicist Sir James Clerk-Maxwell. When the colors come together in various combinations, they produce other colors in the spectrum – with all three combining to produce white light. This, in a simplified manner, is how I understand color is achieved on a computer monitor. The subtractive primaries found by Louis Ducos Du Hauron are cyan, magenta and yellow; mixing these colors you get a color that closely resembles black. Take away these colors, and you are left with white. This is the primary system used in printing, commonly referred to as CYMK (with the K representing a fourth ink, black). The fourth ink is needed to produce a "true" dark black. For the most part, there are no definites with color. The perception of any color is relative to the other colors surrounding it. When a color is placed near other colors, it takes on a different hue because of the way we perceive colors in relation to one another. Value is relative. Value comes into concern for Web design the way Macintosh and Windows machines display colors (they are always lighter on a Mac OS system). The point is to make sure your composition looks great...
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There are some theories that suggest motivation is thoughtful and rational decision-like process. One of the major theories from this type of approach is expectancy theory (e.g., Vroom, 1964). Expectancy theory basically says that people choose their behaviors based on the subjective estimation that such behaviors lead to the valued outcomes. Vroom’s valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory (VIE theory) states that there are three main components that affect human motivation. Valence is the degree in which the outcome the person will have is valuable for him/her. Instrumentality represents the degree in which the first outcome (e.g., performance) leads to the final valued outcome. Expectancy refers to the subjective probability that a certain effort or behavior leads to the first outcome or performance. VIE theory suggests that the multipricative function of valence, instrumentality and expectancy represents motivational force, which predicts a person’s choice (e.g., goal choice). As described above, expectancy theory is a very rational approach to motivation. The strength of this approach is that it predicts a person’s choice (e.g., such as occupational choice) well and is predictive if the task is fairly simple and easy for the estimation of VIE. However, the weakness of this theory is that its predictive power might be low for complex tasks, uncertain environment, and so on. Meta-analysis shows that the multiplied VIE factors doesn’t explain human motivation better than each independent component alone (VanElde & Thealy, 1996). Goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990) also includes some thoughtful, rational process of motivation. The major finding of goal setting research is that difficult, specific goals lead to high performance. Mitchell et al. (2000) suggest that there are direct and indirect effects of goal setting. Direct effect of goal setting is that goals stimulate arousal, attention and direction, and intensity and persistence. This might rather automatic process than thoughtful process....
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International Bacclaureatte TOK Essay Topic: How do beliefs about the World, and beliefs about what is valuable, influence the pursuit of knowledge? The pursuit of scientific knowledge has often been believed to be an exploration in which information is gathered solely from experimentation, but people are slow to realize that experimentation is only one way, among a variety of ways, in which scientists gather information. In their pursuit of new scientific knowledge, scientists may conduct surveys, or build on pre-existing information using assumptions and theories, along with experimentation, in order to obtain knowledge in any particular scientific field. That which the scientists determine as knowledge, however, does not always mirror that which the public receives as new scientific knowledge. Along the path of distribution of this knowledge, the influences of economics, morality and political beliefs can taint pure scientific knowledge discovered by the scientist. In almost all fields of new research, scientists seeking to gain new knowledge encounter inadequate funding. Whether the money is needed new lab equipment or field research or other such projects, sufficient funding is almost always unattainable. Because so little is known about this new field of study, the public is scared and few are willing to support it. Once more information is discovered and scientists acknowledge the importance of that field, more funding is gradually provided, and more scientists, furthering the pursuit of knowledge, conduct more research in this field. The required funding is only provided after the scientists present data persuasive enough to promote further studies in that. Also, because of the lucrative business opportunities of such a discovery, a scientist may be unwilling to share his knowledge unless he has been rewarded. Next to interfere with the pursuit of scientific knowledge is morality. Just as information that is not "politically correct" cannot be released because it may...
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Art Theory leading into the 18th Century The argument of color verses design originated in the Baroque, but extended much further into the eighteenth century in terms of theory. Roger de Piles was the father of this argument based on coloris versus disegno and the Poussinists versus the Rubenists and so on. He joined the Academy in 1699, right on the verge of the Rococo and basically formed the argument for color, rather than classical design in his Cours de Peinture par Principes in 1708. Up until Rubens artwork, the classical style of painting was preferred with a focus mainly on "straight lines, right angles, triangular arrangement of forms, balance, symmetry, and so on" (Minor 367). De Piles believed that color appealed more to human's emotions and that was what truly great art was meant to do. He therefore obviously chose Ruben's work as superior to Poussin's. This was known as the Quarrel between the Ancients and the Moderns, with the Moderns prevailing in the eighteenth century . Ruben's work was monumental in shaping the painting style during the next century. His paintings inspired artist's styles such as Watteau, Gainsborough, and Boucher. Through de Piles arguments within the academy and Ruben's rejection of the classical style the eighteenth century painting theory was born. This essay will attempt to follow this movement from the classical style that dominated the baroque with Poussin to the shift towards Rubens at the end of the century and end with its influence on art theory in the eighteenth century. Throughout most of the Baroque the classical was preferred in painting. Poussin's paintings are usually used as perfect examples of baroque classicism, but the idea of painting in the classic mode goes much further than this. "Literary theory on ideas of painting went back at least to Alberti"...
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Summary In the statement, it is considered that game theory is hard to use in developing and implementing international business strategy. In the following parts, by analyzing the standpoint of the statement and the definition of game theory, I would critically assess the statement. In the following parts, some general examples would be provided to discuss whether or not game theory is suitable for international business strategy and why the statement is considering that in international business game theory is hard to be developed. In addition, the effects of globalization on game theory in international business strategy will be considered as an additive factor. Finally a conclusion would be made that although game theory cannot be used in international business strategy as simply as it is used in domestic firm strategy, it can be expected that game theory can be well used in regions and blocs development in the future. Analysis on the statement Firstly why the statement indicates that game theory is too hard to use in international business strategy thinking should be discussed, and before this, the definition of game theory can explain some questions. Game theory can be defined that under some situations and rules, depending on the information they hold, individuals take their own strategies and acts at the same time or in some sequence, to get their own goals (Norton, 1995, P36). Here some key words related to the statement can be discussed. Rules: although players in the game would make a rule as soon as they reach equilibrium, previously they must have a rule to start the game. In the general business strategy, because firms are under the same policies and laws, the final equilibrium is easy to reach. But, when the business is taking place between different blocs or different regions, not only economic factor but also policy or other...
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Taimur Ali Tiwana 2478675 Management has been around since the dawn of civilization. In primitive societies everyone had to do labour. When we read that Pharaoh built the Pyramids, we know that in fact other people did that actual work, as these labourers cut, moved, and placed the stones. The first managers were to tell them what to do, to see what they did it, and to chastise those whose performance was unsatisfactory. Another example of Management in the ancient times is the Great Wall of China. Management is vital in every type of organization. The duty of a manager is to set high standards by intelligently and efficiently leading its organization by adapting to new ways as required by the society. The 21st century has seen new types of organizations and new ways of doing business arise, so, too will there be new management trends, ideas, and techniques. In the last three decades a large number of management theories and concepts were presented but the primary challenge to the previous bureaucratic management theories came from the successful Japanese business culture, which sent shockwaves through Western business thinking in the 1970's. An organization may have more than one manager who have special concerns that may be at the highest and the lowest level and set long term goals and sometimes are involved in the day to day activity of the business. Managers try to accomplish their objectives in the shortest period of time and in an organized manner. They have to make instant decisions and inability to cope with change in result in disastrous consequences including not only financial loss but also the loss of organizational reputation. Wise managers having acumen apply the best current thinking and strategy. Organizations in today's global environment operate dynamically. Introduction of sophisticated new economies, technological advancements and competition from emerging...
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To obtain the value of resistivity of constantan through experimental and theoretical practice. Below is a short sample of the essay "To obtain the value of resistivity of constantan through experimental and theoretical practice.". If you sign up you could be reading the rest of this essay in under two minutes. Registered users should log in to view the full essay. ... Potential Difference across Wire (Volts) Current (Amps) Resistance (Ohms) Free Membership Registration So you want access to our archive of free essays and term papers? All you need to do is register and verify your email address! You must use the correct email address in order to activate your account. We do not give out your email address or any other personal information to anyone for any reason. Well, what are you waiting for? All fields in red are required! Resistivity (Ohm Meters) 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Preliminary Results 1st Set of Results Length of Wire (m) Cross Sectional Area of Wire (m²) Potential Difference across Wire (Volts) Current (Amps) Resistance (Ohms) Resistivity (Ohm Meters) 0.10 0.00000010752 0.48 1.00 0.48 5.16096e-7 0.20 0.00000010752 0.93 1.00 0.93 4.99968e-7 0.30 0.00000010752 1.38 1.00 1.38 4.94592e-7 0.40 0.00000010752 1.86 1.00 1.86 4.99968e-7 0.50 0.00000010752 2.33 1.00 2.33 5.01043e-7 0.60 0.00000010752 2.83 1.00 2.83 5.07136e-7 0.70 0.00000010752 3.22 1.00 Free Membership Registration So you want access to our archive of free essays and term papers? All you need to do is register and verify your email address! You must use the correct email address in order to activate your account. We do not give out your email address or any other personal information to anyone for any reason. Well, what are you waiting for? All fields in red are required! 3.22 4.94592e-7 0.80 0.00000010752 3.69 1.00 3.69 4.945936e-7 0.90 0.00000010 ... All formatting has been removed from the sample of this essay. Inside Coursework.Info, all coursework and essays can be viewed with all of the original formatting retained - including pictures, tables, images and graphs, as well as the original Microsoft® Word document. You may also be interested in the word count, writing time and other details concerning this essay. If you're interested in knowing more about Coursework.Info, we encourage you to take the the Coursework.Info tour. Nobhead...
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Theories of Resistance in Sigmund Freud and Paul de Man Freud and de Man both outline theories of resistance in interpretation- the former in his work The Interpretations of Dreams and the latter in his essay "The Resistance to Theory". By extension Freud's definition of the "dream" can be thought of as the literary text, and the retelling of this dream or literary text, as the "reading" of the text. It is through the relationship of the patient's retelling/reading and the psychoanalyst that the interpretation of this text/dream comes into being. There are many parallels and incongruities within the resistance theories named by Freud and de Man such as: the basic problem of retelling and reading of the dream/text, the influence of censorship on the interpretation, the pressures of resistance to interpretation and the notion of the "obvious" meaning. De Man and Freud attempt to illuminate the problems of interpretations in different modes. De Mann moves for a shift from hermeneutics to semiotics, and calls for a restructuring of the trivium where emphasis is placed on reading the structure of the text, while Freud looks to restructure the mechanisms of the unconscious through psychoanalysis, that impede interpretation. One major parallel between De Man and Freud's theories of resistance is the reading/ retelling of the dream and the text. According to de Mann, the current problem with textual analysis lies in the reading. The classical linguistic model of the trivium scientifically categorizes language into three parts according to "grammar", "rhetoric" and "logic". These three parts function interdependently with one another and are in conflict and it is the rhetorical side which has won out- for now. Grammar and logic are related to the empirical aspect of language, that which is both measurable and tangible. De Man privileges this empirical aspect and calls for...
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This essay will identify the ecological systems theory, by one of few living theorists Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917 – Current) who the student believes that the theorist expresses his own intuitions and sociological reflections. The ecological systems theory's places an "…emphases on the adaptive mechanisms by which social equilibrium is maintained, seeing these as an inevitable basis for social existence…" (Marshall, p.287, 1998). Bronfenbrenner's sociological thinking incorporates wider environmental issues, which impinges on an individual's social action, such as contextual systems of relationships that form one's environmental structure. These environmental layers, which view humans as existing in constant reciprocity with their immediate environment, consist of a number of social landscapes, which comprise of four multiple spheres, known as the Micro, Meso, Exo and Macro systems. Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationship between the organism and various environmental systems, but the relations between such systems themselves (Hetherington, Parke and Schmuckler, 2002). The preceding definition clearly points out that the ecological systems theory is affiliated with the structural-functional theory, whereby its sociological functional perspective is to show that social institutions do contribute to the maintenance and survival of an individual's social reality. To break down the definition further, the structure part of the definition holds the belief that behaviour and social actions are structured. The theory for instance, explains how cultural values and norms differ from social structures within a particular environment. It relates with that of the structural-functional typology, which is popularized by one of major sociological figures known as Talcott Parsons (1902 –79). According to Marshall (1994), Parsons can be remembered for his mission to provide a fully integrated, abstract, and totalizing theory for sociology, and in addition generalizing concepts, which set out to describe the social system. The main emphasis of the systems model holds...
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Ecological systems theory: This theory looks at a child's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner's theory defines complex "layers" of environment, each having an effect on a child's development. This theory has recently been renamed "bioecological systems theory" to emphasize that a child's own biology is a primary environment fueling her development. The interaction between factors in the child's maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers. To study a child's development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well. Bronfenbrenner Bronfenbrenner's structure of environment: The microsystem – this is the layer closest to the child and contains the structures with which the child has direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings (Berk, 2000). Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in two directions - both away from the child and toward the child. For example, a child's parents may affect his beliefs and behavior; however, the child also affects the behavior and beliefs of the parent. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he shows how they occur among all levels of environment. The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures between layers is key to this theory. At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child's microsystem (Berk, 2000). Examples: the connection between the child's teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, etc. The exosystem – this layer defines the...
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