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The cultural and developmental aspects of American history in the 17th and 18th centuries are certainly among the most important and influential factors in the shaping of this country's long and storied history. Historiographically speaking, there are undoubtedly thousands upon thousands of different studies and opinions on the most influential cultural strides of early Americans well as the pros and cons that each colonial region developed in shaping America and readying it for the Revolutionary Era. Each of these four studies brings a slightly different and even, at times, conflicting approach to analyzing the cultural and social roots of early America, but each one provides a fresh perspective that enhances the idea that America is a true "melting pot" of ideas, social values, and cultural traits. Zuckerman, in his article, focuses his attention on the middle colonies and the erroneous tendencies of historians to ignore controversial or pertinent historical issues in favor of obvious, harmless social arguments. Historians have focused on New England as the true "birthplace of America" because of its early literature and thought that focused solely on Puritanism, and therefore offered an obvious and easy starting point with which to measure the region's cultural metamorphasis. However, as Zuckerman points out, New England was fairly unrepresentative of the real America, as it was a homogenous society dominated by English Puritans and their inflexible doctrines and unstatic customs and economy. The middle colonies, on the other hand, were made up of people of many different origins, races, and creeds, and their interrelationships are definitely more symbolic of American culture. Like most people's idea of America, the middle colonies developed a commercial culture ba! sed on a balanced economy, and, besides that, showed no real homogenous cultural traits that ran through the region. Indeed, most of the different groups that coexisted in...
pages: 4 (words: 961)
comments: 1
added: 06/28/2011
"The Latin Passion Play: Its Origins and Development" Written by Sandro Sticca A book report by Desi Moreno-Penson Wednesday, October 27, 1999 Professor Benito Ortolani Theater History Introduction: The Latin Passion Play: Its Origins and Development by Professor Sandro Sticca (State University of New York Press, 1970) is an engaging account which examines the medieval liturgical ceremonies observing the events in Christ's Passion and traces their continuous change in character from the contemplative and thoughtful to the dramatic. Professor Sticca manages to present in this comprehensive body of work some important points. The first point being Christ's Passion becoming an ever-widening and intensive motif as one of the sacred mysteries beginning in the tenth century. Also, there were many new constraints, which allowed a more stylish and expressive form of visualization and description of Christ's Anguish, which would appear in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In the course of this investigation, Professor Sticca cites many varied examples from the treatises and works of many other important and influential historians. These works include: The History of the Greek and Roman Theatre by Margaret Bieber, The Irresistible Theatre by W. Bridges-Adams, and The Drama of the Medieval Church by Karl Young, among many others. I will, in all likelihood, make use of one or more of their axioms and premeditated conjectures in order to present a more sound conspectus of Professor Sticca's disquisition. According to Professor Sticca, the origin of the medieval drama was in religion. From the epoch of the early centuries, the church held an extremely stern and forbidding view of theatrical presentations, which was broadly considered to be licentious representations of decadent paganism. But once this "immoral" theatre had disappeared, at least according to the dictates of the time, the Church allowed and itself contributed to the gradual development of a new drama, which in their view, was not only...
pages: 7 (words: 1682)
comments: 3
added: 12/07/2011
A critical evaluation of performance management and development processes within Otis PLC Introduction The purpose of this assignment is to critically evaluate the Human Resource Development (HRD) aspects of my employer, Otis PLC's, performance management and development process and to suggest ways in which they could be improved. I have chosen this area of Otis' HRD practices to review because, within Otis globally there is an increasing focus on performance outcomes rather than training inputs. In this respect, Otis is reflecting a common trend, particularly among US based organisations, Harrison (1998). This review will be in the light of the organisation's business strategy, key commercial challenges and culture and will compare Otis PLC's practice to a model of best practice. In reviewing best practice I will suggest that performance management is a system of interlinking processes which are carried out by both line managers and Human Resource Management (HRM) / HRD professionals. I will also suggest that in order for the system to be fully effective its components must work in a coherent and integrated fashion. However, the purpose of this assignment is to consider issues of performance management specifically from an HRD perspective and so I will not review in detail those aspects of performance management which fall outside the HRD function. In the light of this review I will propose appropriate actions to bring the organisation's current practice closer to best practice standards Otis PLC: Organisation, Culture and Key business drivers. Otis PLC is the UK subsidiary of Otis Elevator Company which is itself a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation (UTC). Other significant subsidiaries of UTC include Pratt and Whitney, manufacturers of aircraft engines, and Sikorsky, manufactures of helicopters. Both Otis Elevator and UTC are U.S. multinationals with their headquarters in Connecticut. An organisation chart is attached in Appendix 1. Otis Elevator is a global...
pages: 21 (words: 5681)
comments: 3
added: 10/21/2011
DEVELOPED, DEVELOPING, AND LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES 1. General definitions Term: Developed countries Definition: Countries with high levels of real national income per head and relatively large tertiary sectors. Term: Developing countries Definition: Countries with low levels of real national income per head and relatively large primary sectors. Term: Less Developed Countries Definition: Countries who are generally characterized by low levels of GDP and income per head. They usually have a heavy dependence on the primary sector of the economy. In the case of many developed countries this is true with dependence on agriculture and primary products. Term: Least Developed Countries Definition: The very poorest of the Less Developed Countries. 2. Who are considered the developed and developing countries in the international market? According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), there are no definitions of "developed" and "developing" countries. Members announce for themselves whether they are "developed" or "developing" countries. However, other members can challenge the decision of a member to make use of provisions available to developing countries. What are the advantages of "developing country" status? Developing country status in the WTO brings certain rights. There are for example provisions in some WTO Agreements, which provide developing countries with longer transition periods before they are required to fully implement the agreement and developing countries can receive technical assistance. That a WTO member announces itself as a developing country does not automatically mean that it will benefit from the unilateral preference schemes of some of the developed country members such as the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). In practice, it is the preference giving country that decides the list of developing countries that will benefit from the preferences. The WTO Agreements contain special provisions which give developing countries special rights and which give developed countries the possibility to treat developing countries more favorably than other WTO Members. These special provisions include, for example, longer time...
pages: 5 (words: 1113)
comments: 0
added: 12/24/2011
Today's firefighters are tomorrow's fire chiefs. It is important to have a solid career development program in place to ensure that the fire department will continue to progress and be able to embrace change as technology advances and the needs of the community change. A Career development programs purpose "is to assist employees to align their own personal goals with those goals and objectives of the organization." (Stone 1) A career development program needs to address education, training, experience, promotional process and opportunity, and employee satisfaction. Technology and ways of doing things are always changing and improving. The only way a fire department can keep up is to provide continuous education and training for all of the members. "Continuous quality training is often what differentiates professional fire departments from the less capable ones." (Managing 152) "Education is the process of delivering essentially academic knowledge. Adult education is generally delivered in traditional and nontraditional settings by institutions of higher learning and is part of a program of study that leads to a degree or certification granted by an accredited degree-granting institution." (Managing 267) Many fire departments take a proactive approach to education by offering incentives to continue education such as tuition reimbursement. Other way administrations can motivate employees to continue education is to require degrees or certificates in order to take promotional exams. Continuing education provides members the tools to become effective leaders at all levels of the department. Training can be defined as the "process of delivering essentially vocational skills and knowledge." (Managing 267) Training is conducted in a variety of different ways and usually results in achieving a specific goal. Training is not only important to member development, but also prepares members to handle hazardous situations in a safe and effective manor. Training is often more hands on than traditional adult education....
pages: 2 (words: 390)
comments: 1
added: 11/21/2011
All employees shall have the right of access to training and development support provided by SMC. No category of employee shall be treated less favorably and denied access to training and development support purely with regard the terms of their contract of employment or any act, or deliberate failure to act, of the employer. Both sides recognize and value the contribution of training and development for all employees in further education as a means of facilitating the deployment of employees' knowledge, skills and experience in their personal and SMC's development to help achieve personal and organizational objectives. In particular it is recognized that an effective training and development policy can be a crucial factor in addressing inequalities in employment in relation to race, gender and disabilities. It is recommended that SMC produce a training and development plan, the aim of which shall be to empower all employees to carry out their roles to the highest standards, and to deliver high quality services to employees. In these guidelines, training and development are broadly defined as those activities aimed at raising the standards of employee practice and thus lifting the quality of the employees' learning and SMC experiences. All training and development activities shall be focused towards the effectiveness of the activities; shall be evaluated in accordance with personal and organizational goals identified via employees' appraisal and SMC's strategic plan. These guidelines provide a framework for the provision of training and development support to all employees and will be developed locally with the recognized organization. The types of training and development goals identified will depend on the personal and organizational objectives identified through the strategic planning process, and the agreed appraisal procedure. In any event the goals shall, as a minimum standard, take account of the following: - The Mission - The Values - The strategic objectives...
pages: 9 (words: 2354)
comments: 1
added: 07/05/2011
The firm gives training and development as and when it is required. Training is not automatically given and the staff may need to request it when a new client is taken on. A more modern approach being used is Yearly assessment. Some training is also given by team leaders who also give presentations on this. The firm has a specific training department and most of employees' training is done here. This is then hired out to clients as a separate profit-making venture when internal training is not being done. The firm believes development training lacks profit-making opportunities and deem them as unnecessary. The firm practices induction to a point, an induction document is produced and handed out to new employees who are then placed into the office and taught basic needs by existing workers. External courses such as languages are given when seem necessary. There are positive and negative points about the firm's methods of training and development. With induction, this is when an employee should be introduced to the company, showing them the surroundings and people they will work with. The firm only gives a written document and so may not provide the employee with all the information they need for a successful induction. By showing the employee around, they will feel more relaxed. The firm's centralised training facility has resulted in the saving of lots of money as there is no travelling around to lots of different locations and money is made from hiring it out to clients. The benefits of external courses e.g. languages give workers the chance to enhance their skills. However these courses can prove very costly as accommodation is often needed as well as travel expenses and so the firm has to decide whether these courses are essential or not. These courses are very beneficial...
pages: 2 (words: 433)
comments: 0
added: 12/13/2011
Provisionally I agree with this view that motivation is internally generated, not forced, as each different person has different drives in their heads, and if one man does not want to work he will not, or at least not well. Many outside factors can affect this though, influencing motivational drive, which causes a reasonable argument for both sides of the question. In this essay I will attempt to outline all the most important arguments flying both ways to come to a rounded conclusion. Armstrong described personal motivation in 1992, saying that 'a well motivated person is someone with clearly defined goals who takes action which he or she expects will achieve these goals'. This would be the most textbook description of motivation, as there are different motivational goals to be achieved by every separate person and different factors that motivate them in the first place, this is where the theories come into play. Motivation can though be split into two obvious categories, the first being extrinsic, which means the externally driven factors that affect peoples motivation, covering such things as reward structures, threats of punishment or pay and promotions; the second category is intrinsic, or the internal, more personal factors like the feeling of true achievement to a job well done and pleasure in the end product, this category is the one that defines any one persons real motivation inside. I am now going to look at what motivational aspects are there and available for which management teams can motivate their staff with, including straight from the induction process, communication, rewards, training and development programmes, appraisals, teamwork, all things that help the management recruit the right person for the right job. The first of these that is encountered in any job is the induction process; this defines how welcome they feel from the...
pages: 10 (words: 2529)
comments: 0
added: 01/04/2012
The poem is a dramatic monologue which uses an implied interlocutory function to depict changing perspective as a positive concept tempered with uncertainty and aims to encourage timid readers to take action to free themselves from restraints and explores the myriad of possibilities which may lie beyond this metaphorical gateway. When the context is considered a subverted political layer is distinguishable; although originally banned from publishment, Holub wrote The Door during the 1950's at a time when the Communism reign over Czechoslovakia was at its most powerful and oppressive. A contrast is created between the perspective of the inside and outside worlds which are separated by the door, this regime's barrier to political thought, freedom and possibilities; something which confines and limits our perceptions of the worlds. The poem uses a simple vocabulary and steady repetition of imperatives, "Go and open the door" and "Maybe" to create an emphatic tone which implores readers to take necessary action to remove this constraint and reveal a wide scope of positive possibilities. These are then listed and refer to a liberated world of variety and fresh outlooks on everything from the ordinary, "a tree", "a face", to the more fantastic "magic city" or the abstract "a picture of the picture". Thus the door is a dual metaphor for restrictions placed on us as well as being a gateway to opportunity and change. The perspectives of the speaker and the listener are markedly different; the first is released and attempts through it's impassioned monologue to arouse the curiosity, "Maybe" in italics stresses the tempting though uncertain nature of the possibilities and the following list of the virtues of change inspire the second to remove the barrier to the world of wider experience. The listener is timid, imprisoned by typical fears, such as discovering a stark...
pages: 2 (words: 348)
comments: 1
added: 11/13/2011
To What Extent have the Key Political ideas Directly Influenced Change and Development 1740-1980? The Years between 1740 and 1980 heralded many new and revolutionary ideas in the political spectrum. This period shows the struggles of a new governing force and the development of the ideas behind it. Ideologies aimed to change, not only the governing force, but also the societies way of thinking and situation in their society. The way this happen was by putting an idea in people's head, something that would benefit them. This idea would spread around many people who agree with the idea and eventually these people would fight to implement it. Ideologies are formed with reason, ideologies link together and nobody has got the right balance of ideas, so there is opposition and other ideologies are formed. This change is very similar to Hegel's economic theory of change, thesis, anti-thesis, synthesis. An idea, thesis, is formed, there is opposition, anti-thesis, and a new idea is formed, synthesis. To say this is correct is ill informed. There are many circumstances that also add to the stories of the ideologies. An ideology is formed to help and shape society, the economic regime is there to support the society and maintain the ideology. This period of history has a huge change of ideas. One of the most important aspects of the early part of my period of study, for the European aspect at least, is the French Revolution. This was an important break for Europe, which had been stuck, in a feudal system. This introduced to, and provoked liberal thought, all around Europe, for this reason liberalism links to many ideologies and countries. The idea of liberalism seemed appealing to these countries as it showed that there could be a form of equality in society. An example of inequality in society is the supremacy of a king. They are put in place because of the family they are bom...
pages: 12 (words: 3120)
comments: 0
added: 01/17/2012
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