Discuss the development of the antitrust legislation in the United States between 1865-1940.To what extent was it successful in curbing the excesses of big business.Business
To the people of the United States, a nation who's governmental policies, it is generally assumed favour competition, the great merger movement came as an incredible shock. With the dangers of monopolies staring them in the face, Americans watched the merger movement unfold, bringing with it a change from what was once a nation of freely competing individually owned enterprises into a nation dominated by a small number of giant corporations . Public response to the consolidations inevitable rising of prices and securing of their monopoly positions by extracting rebates from the railroads and restricting competitor's access to raw materials led to the launching of investigations throughout government. The result of which is an extensive but disorganized body of antitrust legislation on the federal statute books. Theodore Roosevelt sensed the political value of prompt federal action and revived the Sherman antitrust act in 1904 with the prosecution of the northern securities holding company. It was under Woodrow Wilson's administration, which also saw the benefit of trust busting, that congress passed the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914 along with the federal Trade commission. Both of which were intended to remove ambiguities in existing antitrust law by making more specific rules against monopoly and restraints of trade. While this prompt action reduced the anxieties of the public the question to be asked is whether or not it did much to protect the competitive structure of American Industry . According to Kolko, Roosevelt's and the other official's efforts at trust busting were insincere, and did little to alter the concentration of control in American industry. Kolko argued that most of the government regulation actually worked in favour of the large corporations . Robert H.Bork also noted the failings of the federal policy, but his explanation for this was the "diverse, mutually incompatible legal...
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The roots of English literature can be found in the late part of the first millennium in the year of the Lord. The protagonists of these first literary developments were generally kings. Over the coarse of several progressive centuries a diversely broader group of protagonists has been taken on. This group possesses more distinctive qualities than its predecessors. English literature's main character has grown immensely since the beginning of its revolution and, it continues to thrive at the present day. The epic Beowulf marks the origin of the evolution process. The protagonist in this story is Beowulf, the nephew of Higlac, king of the Geats. Beowulf is a great warrior with virtually no weakness when he is young. It seems that nothing can stand in his way. He slays horrific beasts with little effort and even battles underwater for hours at a time. He is equivalent to the contemporary comic-book superhero. As time passes, he inevitably grows old, and a dragon takes his life. Literary works that follow Beowulf contain main characters with more advanced personalities and weaknesses while simultaneously and gradually lowering their social class. The short story "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" and The Prologue to The Canterbury Tales, which were written in the Medieval Period, are magnificent examples of this improvement to the English protagonist. "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", encompasses a knight with a slight inferiority complex, and a fear of death. These qualities contribute to a more advanced plotline than Beowulf. Sir Gawain can face a wider variety of adversity than Beowulf does because of his limiting humanistic attributes. Attributes, such as those, are depicted in The Prologue to The Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer. The Prologue focuses on twenty-nine different characters of varying social class who each tell two stories on a pilgrimage...
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New England and Chesapeake regions were settled by the English in 1700 and they both developed differently. The Northern Colonies were settled by immigrants and the Middle Colonies were settled by the non-primogeniture. The Northern Colonies' religious beliefs led to human rights and rebellion. While the Middle Colonies built up a new source of labor as slavery and servitude. The motivations of the Middle Colonies and Northern Colonies had many differences between rights, religion, rebellion, and slavery. Religion was a major motivation which played a great role in the settling of the immigrants in the Northern Colonies. Greed was the motivation of the Middle Colonists when only the Primogenitures got land. In the Northern Colonies the Separatists, which were just extreme Puritans, left England to break away from the Church of England because they believed that only "visible saints" should be allowed, but the Church of England was open to all comers. Puritans believed in predestination in which during the conversion the elect would find out their status and expected to live a good exemplarily life and from that day forth called the "visible saints". In the Middle Colonies, primogeniture was taking place, which meant the eldest sons got the land of their wealthy parents and the Noblemen came to America to find individualism and land. When John Rolfe discovered tobacco in Virginia, the colonists used it as their substitute for gold which they called Black Gold. The Corn Laws, where colonists were forced to grow corn or they would be put in jail, had to be enforced because the colonists would only grow tobacco plants instead of food crops needed for survival. Religion played a major role in the foundation of the Northern Colonies and led to human rights, religious tolerance, and rebellion against government. William Penn, the founder of Quakerism,...
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The Ancient Egyptians' religion had a great impact on the development of their society and culture. The entire civilization of Ancient Egypt was based on religion, and their beliefs were important to them. The Ancient Egyptians' religion was similar to modern time religion. Nowadays, not everyone believes in the same God. Ancient Egypt was no different. Different kings worshipped different gods, as did the workers, priests, merchants and peasants. Ancient Egyptians believed in a "greater being". The beliefs were expressed in pictures of the gods. The gods lived, died, hunted, went into battle, gave birth, ate, drank, and had human emotions. The gods' reigns overlapped, and, in some instances, merged. They also reflected the Ancient Egyptians culture. The reigning king determined which god had dominance. Their area of dominance depended on where the king wanted his capital. The myths and names of the gods also changed with their location. Names in ancient Egypt were very mystic and powerful. People believed using a name could be beneficial or detrimental. If you knew a name you had power. Each god had five names, and each was connected to an element, such as air, fire, earth, water or with celestial bodies. Sometimes the names were a descriptive statement about the god, such as strong, virile or majestic. Every event in the Ancient Egyptians' lives dealt with relationships between natural and supernatural forces. The Egyptians thought that natural events were caused by the gods. Some examples of these are: the annual flooding of the Nile River; the enormous size and desolateness of the surrounding desert and the daily cycle of the sun's rising and setting. Today people believe natural events happen because they have been scientifically proven. The ancient Egyptians, on the other hand, believed the gods accomplished these phenomena. They believed the earth was a flat platter of clay floating on...
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“Can Nicholas II be judged responsible for the development of the revolutionary situation in Russia in the early years of the 20th Century?”History
Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia in 1894-1917, can be deemed responsible for the advancement of Russia's revolution in the early stages of the 20th century. It is due to his views on Government, cultivated by his lack of intellect that created a situation in Russia ideal for a revolution. His intelligence and views on government influenced his personality, adding to his many flaws as Tsar of Russia. It is through his incompetency that the development of a revolutionary situation in Russia occurred. One element which led to a revolutionary situation in Russia was Nicholas II's stance on autocracy, as the true and only type of government. His in adapting ways, bought about the failure to enact governmental reform. Nicholas was solely responsible for making the decisions for Russia, and he made many poor ones. He felt threatened by powerful individuals, such as many of his capable ministers, who would offer advice which may have benefited Russia. Instead of considering the advice given, he would dismiss them. He preferred ministers that were not opinionated and undemanding of his role as Tsar. Nicholas felt that his position of Tsar was a 'scared trust' and he was obligated to pass on his patrimony to his successor Alexei. His goal was to 'safeguard the principle of autocracy as firmly and steadfastly', no matter what the cost. His determination to keep his position as Tsar unchallenged, with unlimited power over Russia, forced the people to find innovative ways to install a new system of government in Russia. Nicholas' rigid views on autocracy and his failure to reform are duly bound to his lack of intellect. He made many unwise decisions whilst ruler, crippling Russia's status even more. He was said to be somewhat of a simpleton, which is reflected in many decisions he made during his period...
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Discuss the main treaties of Europe and their contribution to the development of the E.U. The European Community (EC) was established by Robert Schuman, a French minister, and Jean Monnet the man responsible for rebuilding the French economy after the Second World War. They believed that Germany should be given help to rebuild but only if they agreed to join an organisation of European states so that the chances of another world war would be less likely. In 1951 France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg all signed the Treaty of Paris thus creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Their objective was the creation of a common market in relation to the production of coal and steel. The obvious advantage of this initiative was the competitive edge they now had in the production of coal and steel. In 1957, the six member states signed two more treaties in Rome resulting in the European Economic Community (ECC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). The EEC treaty under the treaty of Rome was concerned with general economic integration achieved by merging the separate interests of the member states into a common market where goods, services and capital could circulate freely. The creation of the EEC required a pooling of resources in areas covered by the EEC treaty. The founders of the EEC gain in peace, stability and economic development as outweighing the inevitable loss of sovereignty. According to the treaty of Rome the main objectives of the EEC were: ?To lay the foundations of an "even closer?union?between the peoples of Europe ?The achievement of economic and social progress by removing trade barriers ?To secure the constant improvement of the living and working conditions of community citizens ?To bring about harmonious economic development across EEC member states. In order to achieve these objectives a single common market would...
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What forces and factors led to the division of Korea in 1945, and how have they affected the political development of the two divided states? Introduction Korea was a unified country for 13 centuries from the mid-7th century until the year 1945 when it became an early victim of the Cold War and got tragically divided into two countries. The Republic of Korea in the South and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the North have since developed into two very different countries. The greater majority of Koreans wish to re-establish unified Korea and bring an end to the Cold War legacy. Forces and factors leading to the division · The struggle for occupation. Japan's earlier than expected surrender and Truman's domination policy forced the US foreign policy makers to pay attention to Korea where Japan ruled. The US did not wish the Soviets to occupy all of Korea for several reasons and also moved into Korea to secure the area below the 38th Parallel which is now known as South Korea. · Security of Japan. The United States saw Korea, even if it had to be split, as a means of securing Japan's security and coupled with the fact that the Soviet was also concerned about Japan's re-armament and re-emergence, an agreement was reached to split Korea. Korea was then divided into two hostile zones with the Koreans nationhood sacrificed and their people divided. · US foreign policy. The foreign policy of the United Stages of America prior to April 1945 was Roosevelt's hegemonism. This policy relied on mutual assistance and understanding whilst the United States of America played leadership roles. This policy contemplated of a world in which the United States of America defended and protected its political and economic interests. This, to the United States, would be achieved through the effective management of their...
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The role of taxation in the transformation of the Japanese Economy Introduction Before the Meiji restoration under the feudal Tokugawa Shogunate, taxation was mainly a tool for warfare and military power. The system was highly regressive and pressed lightly on the rich and profit-earners. It was calculated to preserve a very unequal distribution on incomes and to stimulate the accumulation of private capital. This tendency somehow continued and was magnified before W.W.II when direct taxation was introduced for a more equal and balanced system. However, the Meiji restoration did bring with it tremendous changes to the tax system and the use of the revenues. The Japanese government has since had an active participation in the economy, yet not controlling it directly but rather through market mechanisms. It took responsibility for promoting economic growth by using incentives and taxes collected in an effective way. The often cited goal of taxation in western countries that was equality was often sacrificed for the goal of economic growth in order to prevent being colonized, then to pursuit the desire to become an imperialist nation and then for pride and export. The role of government and its fiscal policies played an important role in the transformation of the Japanese economy through the periods of Meiji restoration, before W.W.II and post W.W.II period where taxes respectively shifted from land taxes to internal indirect taxes to income / direct taxes. (Fig 1) Period of Meiji Restoration During the first years of the Meiji reforms, the government had serious financial difficulties with tax revenues inadequate for its massive commitments. In 1873, land reforms gave tittles to landowners and customary tenants, freed the transfer and sale of land from feudal restrictions and imposed tax obligations equal to 3 per cent (which was lowered to 2.5% in 1878) of the value of land. In...
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The Internet began as the ARPANET during the cold war in 1969. It was developed by the US Department of Defense's research people in conjunction with a number of military contractors and universities to explore the possibility of a communication network that could survive a nuclear attack. It continued simply because the DOD, it's contractors, and the universities found that it provided a very convenient way to communicate. For the first decade that the Internet was in existence, it was primarily used to facilitate e-mail, support online discussion groups, allow access to distant databases, and support the transfer of files between government agencies, companies and universities. During the early 1980s, all the interconnected research networks were converted to the TCP/IP protocol, and the ARPANET became the backbone of the new Internet, which comprised all TCP/IP-based networks connected to the ARPANET. This conversion to TCP/IP was completed by the end of 1983 - and the Internet was born. In 1990, HTML, a hypertext Internet protocol that could communicate the graphic information on the Internet, was introduced. Each individual could create graphic pages, which then became part of a huge, virtual hypertext network called the World Wide Web. The enhanced Internet was informally renamed the Web and a huge additional audience was created. At the moment, most people use the term "Internet" to refer to the physical structure of the Net, including client and server computers and the phone lines that connect everything. They use the term "Web" to refer to the collection of sites and the information that can be accessed when one is using the Internet. A number of different services have developed over the years to facilitate the sharing of information between the many sites on the Internet. Because the Internet was originally research-oriented, many of these services were...
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50 Factors Affecting Chinese Automobile Market According to international convention, when a nation's average GDP per head stands at US$ 1,000 - 10,000, it represents a golden age for the nation's automobile industry. By 2001, China's GDP per capita is estimated to exceed US$ 1,000. However, the automobile industry remains bedeviled by sluggish growth. Why? GDP growth rate affects the automobile market. Every one percent of GDP growth enlarges the automobile market by 1-2 percent. GDP increase or decrease has a critical influence on the development of the automobile market. Foreign exchange reserve and export allow China to pay for its petrol, raw materials and components. China has discovered large oilfields in coastal and inland areas. These must cover the increasing demands of the automobile market. China boasts 1.3 million kilometers of road and 14 million vehicles. That means average road per vehicle is 90 meters. However, there are also 200 million bicycles, 30 million motorcycles, 15 million agriculture vehicles, 13 million tractors and 10 million horse-drawn carts. More road construction is imminent. If China completes a highway network radiating in all directions, people will alter their means of transportation. Recent tax reforms have increased incomes, strengthening the purchasing power of government organizations and work units. The booming economy will spur enterprise prosperity. Consequently, the number of automobiles will increase. Enterprises do not own many automobiles. The business vehicle market has potential. With the increasing living conditions of the Chinese people, their demands to lease automobiles will also increase. Leasing accounts will keep developing. Along with the expanding national economy, more raw materials and parts will be made in China, reducing costs and sales prices of the automobile. The development of the individual economy will bring out more individual automobile purchases. The central areas of China, including Hubei, Chongqing, Henan, Shanxi, are the largest automobile markets. Highly - developed small cities...
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