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Introduction Different ways we see organisations What are frames? An Overview of the Four-Frame Model Characteristics of the Structural Frame Characteristics of the Human Resource Frame Characteristics of the Political Frame Characteristics of the Symbolic Frame Case Study: Symbolic and Cultural Dimensions of the Leadership Role of Secondary Principals Group Activity: Assessing your Leadership Style and Behaviour using the Four Frames Effective Leadership Leadership Characteristics of the Four Frames Integrating Frames For Effective Practice Group Activity: Applying the Four Frames: Case Study - Robert F. Kennedy High School References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Key reference: Bolman, L and Deal, T. (1997) Reframing Organisations (Second Edition) San Francisco: Jossey Bass Introduction This session examines organisations form a multi frame perspective. The underlying theme is that we each see the world differently depending on our cultural and economic background, social conditioning, education and training, work experience and personality. These aspects shape our perspective and determine our behaviour. This session uses the framework developed by Bolman and Deal that argues we see the world through a lens or frame. They offer four frames from which we can view organisations: structural, human resource, political and symbolic. They argue that many of us use only one or two frames and that this limits our ability to act as effectively. They suggest leaders need to use all four frames. Leaders must develop the ability to `reframe' situations in order to make sense of what is happening and to create alternative solutions and strategies. The most effective leaders integrate the frames into their thought patterns and behaviour Different ways we see organisations The exercise conducted in sessions 1 and 7 in which participants in the course were asked to draw or map their organisation shows how very differently we see the world. Some participants drew diagrams that resemble the typical organisational chart as symbolised by the pyramid with the board or council at the top. Yet others reversed the pyramid so...
pages: 33 (words: 9066)
comments: 2
added: 07/19/2011
Marx was the best hated and most calumniated man of his time. Governments, both absolutist and republican, deported him from their territories. Bourgeois, whether conservative or ultra-democratic, vied with one another in heaping slanders upon him. All this he brushed aside as though it were a cobweb, ignoring it, answering only when extreme necessity compelled him. And he died beloved, revered and mourned by millions of revolutionary fellow workers -- from the mines of Siberia to California, in all parts of Europe and America -- and I make bold to say that, though he may have had many opponents, he had hardly one personal enemy. His name will endure through the ages, and so also will his work. -Friedrich Engles (Marx's eulogy) A LITTLE BACKGROUND INFORMATION Karl Marx has been described as a philosopher, social scientist, historian, and revolutionary. His Socialist beliefs have come to be regarded as some of the most influential and radical theories that continue to be vigorously studied to this day. On May 15, 1818, Karl Heinrich Marx was born in Trier, Germany to Hirschel and Henrietta Marx. Karl's family lived a comfortable middle-class life because of Hirschel's career as a lawyer. Due to his profession, Hirschel decided to convert from his Jewish beliefs to the Protestant religion in order to avoid anti-Semantism and protect his family. In fact, Hirschel also changed his name to Heinrich. Karl Marx attended school in Trier from 1830 to 1835 before beginning his law studies at Bonn University. Marx, however, spent more time socializing than studying, so his father insisted that he transfer to Berlin University. Here, the absence of distractions led Marx to change his attitude. He buckled down and took his studies more seriously. In 1838, Karl's father passed away leaving a young Marx on his own to earn a living. Karl...
pages: 10 (words: 2563)
comments: 1
added: 12/04/2011
Marie Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw in 1867. She came from a family that put a lot of importance on education. Both of her parents were teachers. Marie gained a lot of her knowledge in physics and chemistry from her father. Marie had a great passion for knowledge, but there weren't many options for women in Poland. Her true dream was to be able to go study at the Sorbonne in Paris, but her family couldn't afford it at the time. By the time Marie was 24 she had raised the money to go to Paris, so she packed her bags and went to Paris to live with her sister, Bronya. It had been six years since Marie had worked on her studies, but she was determined. She knew what Sorbonne could offer her, so she overcame the difficulties. To save herself a long trip to school she rented a small attic space to live in. She was so happy because she could now devote all of her time and strength to her studies. Marie was studying math and physics from France's best known mathematicians and physicists. In 1893, after two years at Sorbonne, Marie received her degree in Mathematics. After her third year she had passed all of her math and physics exams. Her wish was to get her teaching diploma and go back to Poland. Instead, she met Pierre Curie. Pierre was 35 years old, eight years older than Marie was. Pierre was an internationally known physicist, who wanted to devote his life to his scientific work. He worked at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry as head of the Laboratory. He learned all of his knowledge from his father. In July 1895, Pierre and Marie were married in the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived....
pages: 6 (words: 1432)
comments: 1
added: 10/29/2011
where as the basic thinker is only as good as the mold that made him the extraordinary thinker is a superhuman idealistic machine that is in need if a serious reconsideration on the part of the rest of humanity. although the freedom fighters arrived one by one as the appointed time arrived. no one risked traveling with any other rebel, each wore a disguise each came prepared with an excuse for his business down in the suboid tunnel. bobo arrived down in the tunnels with margo to start a little hanky panky to have little suboids of their own see spot run run jim run put it in margo. of all the things ive lost imiss my mind the most of all the things ive lost i miss my minfd the most.can the dog run as fast as the fox im not sure about that cant i run faster than the dog?? for a final sum up of all the things ive just said here a are you listening no the cow needs to be milked so i gotta go eat shit and die you nazi sons of bitches in eed my essay real fast so i will type this really fast and get it over with mech mech the the the the the the the the the th row row jump this damn thidnfg we are betryaed cried one of the rebels the animals have come to eat us alive this is not cool said the other can i have some of your chicken sad the frog it looks good...
pages: 1 (words: 261)
comments: 0
added: 12/28/2011
INTRODUCTION The way we live tells us who we are, so our homes are dead giveaways. We Filipinos are known around the world for our unconditional caring for our elders. This thesis, "REINVENTING EARLY FILIPINO TRADITIONAL HOUSES INTO A CONTEMPORARY FILIPINO RESIDENCE", is a tribute to our forefathers to somehow show them that their heritage is still alive and as well appreciated. And what better way to show them appreciation than to relive their work in the past and incorporate it in the future. What people in other countries call vernacular architecture we call folk architecture here, but mostly we identify the rural bahay kubo as a "native" house. The bahay kubo is by far the Filipino majority's prime idea of a traditional Filipino house. Vernacular architecture goes beyond the bahay kubo. From its origins as a rural bamboo and nipa house, it evolved into the urban bahay na bato (house of stone) during the Spanish colonial era. From there, certain features evolved into the houses built in the early part of the 20th century during the American regime. On the other hand, the early inhabitants of the Philippines were of many different peoples and of these peoples spawned the rich cultural diversity that we have now. Some ethnic communities scattered across the country, even to this day, still live governed by their ancestor's culture. Unblemished, these people's culture stands strong that even through the test of time, they still live in their ethnic traditional homes. These traditional houses are the architectural heritage left to us by our early Filipino ancestors. However, in this day and age, these traditional houses have become an anachronism. The more fortunate of their residents have, over time and generations, built new houses of cement roofed with galvanized iron roofing. It matters little that the new house is...
pages: 2 (words: 367)
comments: 1
added: 07/01/2011
A Day to Remember I awoke the morning of September eleventh like any other day. Comfortably lying in my bed, warm and snug. I was dreaming and at total peace, oblivious to the world around me. Suddenly, I sprang up to the blaring sound of my pulsating alarm clock. The sun was up and shining into my bedroom window. I got up, looked around, and observed the horizon with a disgruntled look on my face; admiring its beauty. I did not know it that chilly morning, but September eleventh would change my life forever. It changed my perception about fear, my awareness about world issues, and my view on the preciousness of life. As I was getting ready for school, I felt a fearful of the new year ahead of me. I felt disinclined to go to school that day, knowing that I had a plenty of difficult classes to take. I reluctantly trudged to my first class in the brisk fall air. Within seconds of taking my seat, someone asked me if I had heard about the plane that crash accident in New York. Five minutes later my teacher began informing the class about what was really going on, she turned on the television. As I was watching the second plane crash into the World Trade Center, I knew it was no accident. I was so shocked that I forgot all about being tired, and glued my eyes to the television with full intensity. I immediately began to fear the worst; I imagined planes falling out of the sky everywhere all across America. I feared that maybe our city would be targeted next. But most of all, I feared the beginning of a new world war. My fears were confirmed when I heard reports of other planes falling out of the...
pages: 4 (words: 897)
comments: 0
added: 02/04/2012
Consciousness is the awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment. Consciousness is divided into two broad states: waking and altered states of consciousness. In waking consciousness, we are awake and aware of our thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. When we enter an altered state of consciousness, our mental state differs from waking consciousness. Sleeping and dreaming our natural altered states of consciousness. Unnatural ones include hypnosis, and ones caused by drug use. Sleep occurs in four different stages of sleep. Stage 1 sleep is the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-voltage brain waves. Stage 2 sleep is a sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles". Stage 3 sleep is a sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern. Stage 4 sleep is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation. Several times a night, when sleepers are in stage 1 sleep, sleepers heart rate increases and becomes irregular, their blood pressure rises, their breathing rate increases, and males have erections. This is known as rapid eye movement sleep or REM sleep. There are several theories that try to explain why we dream. There is the unconscious wish fulfillment theory, which is Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers wish to fulfill. According to Freud, the disguised or real meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects are known as latent content of dreams. The overt storyline of dreams is known as the manifest content of dreams. Today scientists don't really agree with Freud and his view. According to the dreams-for-survival theory, dreams permit information that is critical for our daily...
pages: 4 (words: 846)
comments: 1
added: 04/30/2011
... rank likes her straight forwardness in Scene 1 but to his disappointment she starts to loose her identity towards the end of the play. "I think you're the first breath of air that's been in this room for years." At the summer school Rita has learned about authors and she meets other students. Frank is very impressed of her abilities. She changes her lifestyle with new clothes and a new hair colour and was also influenced of her flatmate Trish. Trish encourages Rita a lot and she in under her influence. "As Trish says there is not a lot of point in discussing beautiful literature in an ugly voice." She is changing herself by becoming more like others, Rita is losing her individuality because of Trish's opinions. "Me an' Trish sat up last night and read them. She agrees with me...what makes it more-more...What did Trish say--?" She forgets her lines and we can tell that she is using other people's opinions and fa ... Below is a short sample of the essay "'Educating Rita' shows how a comedy can raise serious issues. Discuss". If you sign up you could be reading the rest of this essay in under two minutes. Registered users should log in to view the full essay. ... dismay, along with it much of her charm. Act one, scene seven is a crucial scene in Rita's development. Having been unable to pluck up the confidence or courage to cross over the threshold to Frank's dinner party, she comes to Frank to justify herself. Rita explains that one of her main concerns was that she might have brought the wrong type of wine. Here again, Russell undercuts the seriousness of his humour. "It wouldn't have mattered if you'd walked in with a bottle of Spanish plonk," says Frank. "It was Spanish" comes the reply. The invitation...
pages: 18 (words: 4819)
comments: 3
added: 11/07/2011
Introduction Positive accounting theory (PAT) is a general term for any theory that provides descriptive information regarding the behavior of accountants. The title has been used by Watts and Zimmerman and this is largely an expansion of previous studies carried out firstly by Fama and later by Ball & Brown in the 1960's. In looking at the apparent acceptance by politicians, firms and wide publication in academic journals PAT could easily be mistaken as being a success. A deeper analysis of the premises of PAT, its questionable scientific status, and the groups upon whom this theory has appealed to would suggest that it is flawed on many levels and is little more than an argument for deregulation and market capitalism. This opposes its claim to be a useful theory used regularly by those concerned with the effects of accounting policy on the status of the firm. The Premises of Positive Accounting Theory. Positive Accounting Theory finds its roots with the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH). The EMH was developed by Fama in the 1960's and is based on economic principles and assumes a perfect market where there is information symmetry and no transaction costs. The semi strong form of EMH argues that capital markets will reflect all information that is publicly available and it is this form that Watts and Zimmerman claim to be predominant. The EMH was used in a study performed by Ball and Brown during the same period. The Ball and Brown study rejected the argument put forward by normative theorists that present accounting results were misleading and irrelevant and stated that historical cost accounting is actually useful (Deegan 2000). This was because their study demonstrated that unexpected accounting earnings produced abnormal returns in capital markets. This was also the case for unexpected poor earnings as they produced abnormal losses in capital...
pages: 10 (words: 2687)
comments: 1
added: 06/17/2011
The cultural and developmental aspects of American history in the 17th and 18th centuries are certainly among the most important and influential factors in the shaping of this country's long and storied history. Historiographically speaking, there are undoubtedly thousands upon thousands of different studies and opinions on the most influential cultural strides of early Americans well as the pros and cons that each colonial region developed in shaping America and readying it for the Revolutionary Era. Each of these four studies brings a slightly different and even, at times, conflicting approach to analyzing the cultural and social roots of early America, but each one provides a fresh perspective that enhances the idea that America is a true "melting pot" of ideas, social values, and cultural traits. Zuckerman, in his article, focuses his attention on the middle colonies and the erroneous tendencies of historians to ignore controversial or pertinent historical issues in favor of obvious, harmless social arguments. Historians have focused on New England as the true "birthplace of America" because of its early literature and thought that focused solely on Puritanism, and therefore offered an obvious and easy starting point with which to measure the region's cultural metamorphasis. However, as Zuckerman points out, New England was fairly unrepresentative of the real America, as it was a homogenous society dominated by English Puritans and their inflexible doctrines and unstatic customs and economy. The middle colonies, on the other hand, were made up of people of many different origins, races, and creeds, and their interrelationships are definitely more symbolic of American culture. Like most people's idea of America, the middle colonies developed a commercial culture ba! sed on a balanced economy, and, besides that, showed no real homogenous cultural traits that ran through the region. Indeed, most of the different groups that coexisted in...
pages: 4 (words: 961)
comments: 1
added: 09/11/2011
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