Jonathan Geymont Society & Technology September 9, 2002 In the first chapter of Technically Speaking the emphases were mostly put towards technological literacy, which is the basic understanding of nature and history of technology. Technological literacy is said to provide citizens with the tools needed to interact in the world today and years to come. Technology is the process which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. Technology is also a combined product of engineering and science. Science is broken down into two parts, knowledge created over time and scientific inquiry of knowledge about the natural world. Technology is the basis for a good part of scientific research. Science and technology are tightly interwoven; both need each other to keep advancing in the world today and years to come. To be a technological literate citizen requires distinct dimensions such as knowledge, ways of thinking and acting, and certain capabilities. Knowledge needed, understand basic engineering concepts and terms such as systems and how a system works. Know ways technology shaped human history and people that shaped history. Lastly, understand that technology reflects the values and culture of society. Way of thinking and acting of a technological literate person requires you to ask questions regarding benefits of technology and to seek information of new technologies. Capabilities of a technological literate person include having hands on skills and being able to identify and fix simple mechanical or technological problems. Many things shape technology and human beings, acting alone or in groups, determine the direction of technological developments....
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James Burke's video "Credit Where It's Due" does a great job of illustrating the social causes and effects leading up to the Industrial Revolution, but that is all it does. In fact, while watching this video, I had to frequently remind myself that this was part of a course called "History of Science," and not "History of English Society." Where's the science? Well, I now realize that there simply wasn't any, or at least not very much in 18th century England. These people were simply too busy making money, having babies, building houses, or devising new strategies for making more money. They did not have time for science. They did however, have plenty of time for inventing all of the wonderful new technologies that would provide them with such material abundance, give the Industrial Revolution its name, and later inspire and enable a science, the likes of which had never been seen before. Yet despite the obvious importance and impact of this technology, Burke gives it very little time in his video. I believe he could have conveyed a much better understanding of the Industrial Revolution had he spent less time on man, and more time on machine. Of course, as Burke explains, social issues, rather than scientific or technological issues, were at the core of the Industrial Revolution. The science of the previous century had only an indirect yet crucial impact on society, such as through the philosopher John Locke, who did so much to promote this new rationalism, now starting to filter down from the elite to the general literate populace. Locke's writings on personal possessions, property rights, and buisiness-friendly government were probably necessary to fuel the socially competitive spirit that an industrial revolution required. Actual science however, as Burke points out in his book, was "stunned into virtual...
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Yorktown Heights, N.Y., April 27, 2001 ... IBM scientists developed a breakthrough transistor technology that could preview how computer chips can be made smaller and faster than what is currently possible with silicon. As reported in the April 27 issue of the journal Science, IBM researchers have built the world's first array of transistors out of carbon nanotubes -- tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that measure about 10 atoms across, are 500 times smaller than today's silicon-based transistors and are 1,000 times stronger than steel. The breakthrough bypasses the slow process of manipulating individual nanotubes one-by-one, and is more suitable for a future manufacturing process. This achievement is an important step in finding materials that can be used to build computer chips when silicon-based chips cannot be made any smaller -- a problem chip makers are expected to face in about 10-20 years. "This is a major step forward in our pursuit to build molecular scale electronic devices," said Phaedon Avouris, lead researcher on the project and manager of IBM's Nanoscale Science Research Department. "Our studies prove that carbon nanotubes can compete with silicon in terms of performance, and since they may allow transistors to be made much smaller, they are promising candidates for a future nanoelectronic technology." Using Carbon Nanotubes as Transistors in Chips Depending on their size and shape, the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting. The problem scientists had faced in using carbon nanotubes as transistors was that all synthetic methods of production yield a mixture of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes which "stick together" to form ropes or bundles. This compromises their usefulness because only semiconducting nanotubes can be used as transistors; and when they are stuck together, the metallic nanotubes overpower the semiconducting nanotubes. Beyond manipulating them individually, a slow and tedious...
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One of the outstanding geniuses in the history of technology, Thomas Edison earned patents for more than a thousand inventions, including the incandescent electric lamp, the phonograph, the carbon telephone transmitter, and the motion-picture projector. In addition, he created the world's first industrial research laboratory. Born in Milan, Ohio, Edison was an inquisitive child. By the time he was 10 he had set up a small chemical laboratory in the cellar of his home after his mother had aroused his interest in an elementary physical science book. He found the study of chemistry and the production of electrical current from voltaic jars especially absorbing and soon operated a homemade telegraph set. In 1868 he obtained a position in Boston as an expert night operator for Western Union Telegraph Company; by day he slept little, however, for he was gripped by a passion for manipulating electrical currents in new ways. Borrowing a small sum from an acquaintance, he gave up his job in the autumn of 1868 and became a free-lance inventor, taking out his first patent for an electrical vote recorder. In the summer of 1869 he was in New York, sleeping in a basement below Wall Street. At a moment of crisis on the Gold Exchange caused by the breakdown of the office's new telegraphic gold-price indicator, Edison was called in to try to repair the instrument; this he did so expertly that he was given a job as its supervisor. Soon he had remodeled the erratic machine so well that its owners, the Western Union Telegraph Company, commissioned him to improve the crude stock ticker just coming into use. The result was the Edison Universal Stock Printer, which, together with several other derivatives of the Morse telegraph, brought him a sudden fortune of $40,000. With this capital he...
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Adult Sites: Banned or Tolerated Over the past decade the Internet has become an essential part of everyday life. It has provided a common ground for people to interact all over the world. Whether it is through information exchange or a simple chat, the Internet has changed the way society operates. Trade, information, and also a wide variety of entertainment have all become accessible features with the click of a button. There is however one form of entertainment that has overtaken almost every other service that the Internet provides. Pornography on the Internet has become one of the most controversial subjects in the history of technology. Pornography is simply an art form; a depiction of erotic behavior intended to cause sexual excitement. The question is should pornography sites on the web be banned in order to protect minors from indecent material. There are both positive and negative aspects to allowing pornography on the Internet. Probably the greatest thing that Pornography on the web has accomplished is promoting free enterprise. "Porno sites" have turned this art form into a goldmine through the use of technology. Sites such as "Private Gold" or "Cybererotica" simply vend memberships to the public for the privilege of viewing their material. Pornography sites were some of the first ones to launch such impressive business strategies on the Internet such as banners and Online Purchases. In a way pornography launched a computer revolution. Now it seems buying, selling and providing services over the Internet has become a worldwide bonanza. Only few realize that Pornography sites were providing similar services in the early 1990s, thus being a great deal responsible for the Internet's booming success. Ever since the beginning of Adult magazines and films, the field of pornography has constantly received opposition from religious groups and concerned parents that it's...
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Like many other aspects of the computer age, Yahoo! began as an idea, grew into a hobby and is now a publicly traded company. Created in 1994 by two Stanford University Graduates, David Filo and Jerry Yang, the two started their guide in April as a way to keep track of their personal interests on the Internet. There were no system or software programs available at the time so Dave and Jerry wrote a software program that enabled them to group their lists into various subject areas. Dave and Jerry spent twenty to forty hours a week locating, identifying, and indexing web sites using the software that they developed. They were determined to cover the entire Web and set goals to visit and categorize at least 1000 sites a day. This unofficial list of private links became a very large list of shared links and was named "Jerry’s Guide to the World Wide Web". It was not originally designed with an external audience in mind but it had attracted one. Jerry and Dave received countless encouraging e-mails from people praising their site. In the fall of 1994 the name of the site changed to Yahoo! which is an acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle." Dave and Jerry insisted they select this name because they considered themselves "yahoos". The two now converted Yahoo! into a customized database designed to serve the needs of the thousands of users that began to use the service through the closely bound Internet community. The Web was entering one of its fastest periods of growth and Yahoo! was experiencing an increase of traffic, so much traffic their database of web sites started overloading Stanford’s computers. This is when they decided to turn their hobby into a career. In early 1995 Marc Andreessen, co-founder of Netscape...
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The definition of a true American. It can't be found in any text, the possibilities are too vast. There are those who consider place of birth and citizenship, those who feel that residency is the only factor, and there are some that will not make a judgment unless an entire life is laid out. The definition is simpler than many people will choose to admit. John "Duke" Wayne once stated,"A man's got to have a code, a creed to live by, no matter his job (Pilar Wayne, vii)." To Wayne, that creed meant living his life as someone who would represent America well. That is the mind set of a red blooded American. John Wayne epitomized a true American by his concrete ideals regarding integrity and leading an good life along with his unconditional love for America. John Wayne was constantly asked of his basic philosophy on life, to which he always responded with advice he received from his father. "1) Always keep your word. 2) A gentleman never insults anybody intentionally. 3) Don't go around looking for trouble but if you get into a fight, make sure you win it. (Eyles, 11)" The words were simple and true, and seemed present in Wayne's actions and speech throughout his life. He was patient with fans, even through provocation from them. His image on screen shown through to his personal life when he would talk about "having a good horse under you...the sound of a kid calling you Dad for the first time...(Eyles, 12)". John Wayne was the ideal American, full of strengths, weaknesses, and national pride. John Wayne's love for America was a known fact. He said at a Republican convention," I am proud of every day in my life I wake up in the United States of America (Eyles, 11)." Such...
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As history has shown the effects of war are both devastating and long lasting. In the case of the Korean War, these effects are still seen today as hostilities continue even after 50 years. The Korean War was a war that had developed from an interesting situation after World War II. Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Union had entered the war to seize control over Japanese territories which included Korea. The strategic position of Korea led the United States to step in to stop communism from spreading. A truce was agreed upon in which the Soviet Union would occupy all of Korea north of the 38 parallel and the United States would occupy all of Korea south of the 38 parallel. From this event began the separation of Korea into a democratic and communist party which would later erupt into a war. Strangely enough, the initial objective of the Soviet Union and the United States was to establish a unified Korea and then evacuate all military forces, but ironically, their actions led to a greater division of Korea and increased tensions between the communist ideologies of the north and the democratic ideologies of the south. As time progress and tensions mounted, different factions began to struggle for power until Kim Il Sung seized power and became a political figure in the north. At the same time in the southern part of Korea, Syngman Rhee took political power and advocated anticommunism. Now that there were two provisional governments in place in Korea, it was decided in 1948 by the United Nations that a general election decide who would be the political figurehead of Korea. After the votes were tallied, it was declared that Kim Il Sung was the president of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea although the...
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The Algonquin was a northern tribe that settled in Canada some time around the 1400's, and now have settled in Quebec and nearby Ontario. The Algonquians history was not exactly a pleasant one they suffered many hardships and obstacles to over come. Samuel de Champlain established the first permanent French settlement on the St. Lawrence at Tadoussac in 1603. Champlain was so impressed with the Algonquin's furs that he explored the St. Lawrence as far west as the Lachine Rapids. Champlain left for France shortly afterwards, but upon his return in 1608, he immediately moved his fur trade upstream to a new post at Quebec to shorten the distance that the Algonquin were required to travel for trade. He soon discovered that Algonquin victories over the Iroquois were not that common, and it was the Mohawk, not the Algonquin, who dominated the upper river. So Samuel usually did not help the Algonquian fight. The Algonquin usually avoided the river because of the threat of Mohawk war parties. The Algonquin fought with the French and helped them when times where ruff, but it wasn't long until the French that they needed to get rid of them and move them away from there villages, so the French turned against the Algonquians. In 1649 French and Indian refugees streamed down the Ottawa Valley to the relative safety of Montreal. During 1650 the remaining Algonquin in the upper Ottawa Valley were attacked and overrun. The survivors retreated, either far to headwaters of the rivers feeding the Upper Ottawa River where the Cree afforded a certain amount of support and protection. During the next twenty years, the Algonquin pretty much dropped out of sight so far as the French were concerned. Learning from their earlier mistakes, the French insisted that this agreement also include their allies and trading...
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Prohibition led to the bootlegging of liquor and the gang wars of the 1920's. The most notorious gangster of all time, known as Al Capone, was the most powerful mob leader of his era. He dominated organized crime in the Chicago area from 1925 until 1931 Capone had liked that idea. Later that year the Prohibition act came into affect and Capone became interested in selling illegal whiskey and other alcoholic beverages. Al Capone was America's best known gangster and greatest symbol of destruction of law and order in the United States during the Prohibition era because of his leading role in the illegal activities which gave Chicago its reputation as a lawless city. Capone's network came through Torrio's business. Capone and Torrio took over his uncles business after his uncle died (Haller, 358). Torrio's uncle did not agree with Capone's idea in the first place. His uncle was shot by his rival, which gave the business to Torrio. They both created the selling of illegal alcohol in the city of Chicago (Haller 359). This impacted the U.S. because it gave many men and women beverages for their needs. Capone developed contacts to obtain imported liquor from Detroit, New York, and Miami (Haller 360). These purchases gave Capone power and wealth because he sold alcohol all over Chicago. After Torrio was shot and almost killed by a rival gang, he retired from the underworld, which left Capone to run the organization alone (World Biography). Now Capone was on the top of his organization and at the age of 26, he was managing more than 1,000 employees, which included a payroll of more than $300,000 a week (World Biography). Capone demanded loyalty from all of his employees. During this time Capone became so rich he gave out free food for Chicago's unemployed...
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