Gregory Luther History Thesis 10/15/01 "Triumph in battle offers twin trophies to the victors. Their writers can impose on history their version of the war they won, while their statesmen can impose the terms of peace." --Winston Churchill "The first law of history is not to dare to utter falsehood; the second is not to fear to speak the truth." --Pope Leo XIII "We should not forget that in the long run the Pope in Rome is a greater enemy of National Socialism than Churchill or Roosevelt." --Reinhard Heydrich In 1901, Winston Churchill ominously predicted that the wars of men would be far bloodier and more costly than the wars of kings. How prophetically accurate this proved to be for the Twentieth Century--by far, and by all standards and accounts, the bloodiest century mankind has ever seen. Tens of millions of innocent civilians were deported, tortured, and murdered. Millions more were left homeless; and millions never learned the fate of their loved ones. The world was consumed by the madness of war, and many of its leaders were no longer controlling events, but rather being controlled by them. Europe, the birthplace of western civilization, found itself suddenly an amorphous battlefield where the boundaries did less to separate good from evil, and Christianity from neo-paganism and atheism, than it served to distinguish one totalitarian regime from another. To many, humanity, indeed God, must have seemed dead. Perhaps one of history's most difficult tasks is to place oneself in the historical context of a time, or an ethos, or an individual, and to see that very world as someone living then saw it. This is difficult when one considers that we have the comfort and perspective of knowing how events unfolded, or, what Belloc called, "the distorting medium of our later knowledge."(The Great Heresies.) To a Pole in 1939, to an Englishman...
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Like many other aspects of the computer age, Yahoo! began as an idea, grew into a hobby and is now a publicly traded company. Created in 1994 by two Stanford University Graduates, David Filo and Jerry Yang, the two started their guide in April as a way to keep track of their personal interests on the Internet. There were no system or software programs available at the time so Dave and Jerry wrote a software program that enabled them to group their lists into various subject areas. Dave and Jerry spent twenty to forty hours a week locating, identifying, and indexing web sites using the software that they developed. They were determined to cover the entire Web and set goals to visit and categorize at least 1000 sites a day. This unofficial list of private links became a very large list of shared links and was named "Jerry’s Guide to the World Wide Web". It was not originally designed with an external audience in mind but it had attracted one. Jerry and Dave received countless encouraging e-mails from people praising their site. In the fall of 1994 the name of the site changed to Yahoo! which is an acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle." Dave and Jerry insisted they select this name because they considered themselves "yahoos". The two now converted Yahoo! into a customized database designed to serve the needs of the thousands of users that began to use the service through the closely bound Internet community. The Web was entering one of its fastest periods of growth and Yahoo! was experiencing an increase of traffic, so much traffic their database of web sites started overloading Stanford’s computers. This is when they decided to turn their hobby into a career. In early 1995 Marc Andreessen, co-founder of Netscape...
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Harry S. Truman was the most influential figure in early Cold War politics. His policies on Soviet expansion and cooperation with western bloc countries set the stage for how other Cold War era presidents would act. It is through his handling of the Korean conflict and the issue of communism, both domestic and abroad, he can be considered the father of Cold War politics. The beginnings of communist distrust in America may be found in the Red Scare of 1919. The Red Scare of 1919 began out of a growing distrust of Bolshevism and strong desire by many groups to preserve America's status quo and throw out the foreign influences that might subvert it (1). People only became more outraged by such frivolous comments by Bolshevik leaders like Vladimir Lenis that "it is necessary to break eggs to make an omelet"(2). Under mounting public pressure the attorney general, Mitchell A. Palmer, conducted anti-alien raids across America. It was not until the arrest and deportation of hundreds of aliens that the national hysteria began to die down as a result of growing public disapproval. Despite the end of the first Red Scare a feeling of Bolshevik distrust continued to pervade America throughout the 20's, 30's, and 40's. At the end of the Second World War America had emerged as the world's most powerful nation. While most of the world lay in shambles, America served as a sort of economic crutch, providing trade and industry to war stricken nations that could no long do so themselves. With programs such as the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), European Recovery Program (ERP), and the Truman Doctrine the United States was clearly making a concerted effort to re-establish trade with and re-stabilize the countries of Europe. The Marshal Plan, which later evolved into the European...
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LIERARY ANALYSIS E1nglish 1 Focus: "American History" by Judith Ortiz Cofer TITLE: a) "American History" b) I think the significant meaning of the title "American History" is the full name "American History", because the time frame in which the story is set in, is when President Kennedy was shot and killed which is in American History. It was also in the time when it was hard for immigrants. The lived in crowded buildings in the city. AUTHOR: a) Judith Ortiz Cofer b) Judith Ortiz Cofer was born in Hormigueros, Puerto Rico, she came to the United States as a young girl after her father joined the U.S. Navy. When Ortiz Cofer was taught Spanish first and then taught English. Ortiz has won such honors as a 1989 National Endowment for The Arts fellowship in poetry, the 1990 Pushcart Prize for Nonfiction, And the 1994 O. Henry Award for outstanding American short stories. She now lives in Georgia. SUBJECT: a) In the Story "American History" Cofer tells about her child hood and growing up in a building that is housed by immigrants. It tells about her troubles and hardships of her life as being an immigrant from Puerto Rico. She finds a boy she likes and he ask her to come over and study but his parents don't approve of her. SUMMARY: a) The story the "American History" is about a girl and her life growing up in a town called Patterson. The girl lives in a crowded building called El Building. The story tells about her troubles at school and her troubles in being an immigrant. Someone new moved in the house next to her and they have a son. She becomes friends with their son and he asks her to come over and study. When she does the boys mother answers the door and tells her that he does not need her help. LITERARY...
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The story of American history is a long and fascinating journey. A journey that endured many complications and sacrifices by some of the first Americans. Even some Europeans had to endure hardship in the discovery of America. In October in 1943 a young man named Christopher Columbus discovered this new world. From there he made a few more journeys to Central America and South America. Years later a boom of American colonization starts with the pilgrims journey across the Atlantic on the Mayflower headed to the American colonization, and found themselves in the south end of Massachusetts bay. They set built the Plymouth colony on the site of Pawtuxet1. Half of the original pilgrims died of malnutrition or disease before the spring of 1621. Even with these tragic tales, still more settlers made their way to the new world. Settling in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Connecticut. While making a home and fending there land from the savages, the settlers still had to live by the Kings rule. Many settlers felt that the King should not have such a long reach to the colonies. While the settlers struggled to stay alive, the King imposed several Acts to impose Taxes and Rules for the colonials to follow. One of these was the Navigation Acts. In 1651 while Oliver Cromwell was the leader of England, the first of the famous Navigation Acts was passed. The chief provisions were, that no goods grown or manufactured in Asia, Africa, or America should be transported to England except in English vessels, and that the goods of any European country imported into England must be brought in British vessels, or in vessels of the country producing them. The law was directed against the Dutch maritime trade, which was very great at that time. But it was nowhere strictly enforced,...
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American History Evaluation Our American History project consists of many important events. We've included a TV show that includes the Westward Movement, the Progressive Movement, WWI, The Great Depression, and WWII. The topics we have discussed taught us how these events effect us today. Our first topic was the westward movement, which took place in the 1800's. The Westward Movement created new markets, more resources, and better transportation. All these things lead to more inventions, better consumer goods, and the Industrialization Era. Industrialization created factories and made a demand for consumer goods. Industrialization lead to the Progressive Movement. The Progressive Movement was the fight for certain laws and rights for the middle class. The middle class was angered because all the wealth was concentrated in the hands of the few, and big businesses did many unfair things. President Theodore Roosevelt helped the progressives accomplish many things by using his power of office. If it weren't for the progressives, we wouldn't have laws such as direct election of senators, pure drugs and food act, and regulation of big business. The next topic we discussed was WWI. We mainly entered WWI to spread democracy. After the war we became the greatest world power. WWI gave us women's right to vote and caused us to fear communism and another war. Historians say WWI lead to WWII. The Great Depression sunk in when the stock market crashed in 1929. It crashed because of the large amounts of people buying on margin. A loss of hope, self-esteem, and pride swept over the nation. President Roosevelt did his best to establish the New Deal and other programs to rebuild the economy. It was a hard time but it taught Americans to regulate money in the stock market and be more cautious. Since the Great Depression we've taken steps to be more...
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American history experienced several life altering events, some with positive and several with negative outcomes. In the period of the 1870's to 1917 the country saw the status of America's rise to the "Industrial Giant." Some of the events that occurred were the expansion west, railroads, job opportunities, technology, and the rise of corporations. The westward expansion allowed farmers to get away from city life, the government, and to have the chance for a new life. This expansion permitted agricultural for farmers and grazing land for ranchers. On the other the government thought it best that the western part of the country needed access to railroads, but in all actuality the government just wanted to "rule" over them. Hence, the expansion westward resulted in the prosperous opportunity for one of the postwar's main engines. Railroads alone partook in the single most economic growth between 1878 and 1893. Railroads allowed for the transportation of vital commodities such as coal, farming produce, and people. As a result, it spurred up industrial growth in the mountains and high plains. Railroads also boosted steel production and singly employed the largest amount of people in 1893. In addition to employees, city life provided jobs for migrants and immigrants, opportunities for education, health care, shops, etc. As a result, cities' populations began to rapidly grow, increasing the amount of employers and as a result factories began to flourish, and America was on the verge of becoming an industrial nation. As the cities grew and factories flourished, I believe that technology played the vital role in industrialization. The invention of the fascinating gasoline-powered engine ( Model T) and electrical power gave Americans' electrical lighting, the type writer, elevators, subways, telephones, air brakes, phonograph, and electric trolleys and railways. Technology also leads the way to corporate growth. With the invention of the...
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The beginning of the century is characteristic for the massive migration – the number of European immigrants reached 13.000.000 between 1900 – 1914. When Cuba revolted against Spain in 1895, American sympathies and interests led to war with Spain (1898). Victory brought the U.S. its first overseas territories (the Philippines, Puerto Rico). However, the U.S. had to pay for their great-power status. Eventhough President Woodrow Wilson promised neutrality in World War 1., the U.S. was unable to remain outside the struggle. Its entry into the war in 1917 was decisive in bringing about an Allied victory and started American involvement in the Europen balance of power. The prosperity of the decade that followed World War I. came to a sudden end in 1929 when the stock market crashed and the Great Depression began in the era of President Franklin Roosevelt. His First Hundred Days and The Second Hundred Days legislation greatly helped the country´s economy, but a full economic miracle was still not achieved until war production became massive on the eve of the World WarII. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour brought the United Sates into World War II. on the side of Britain and the Soviet Union against the fascist nations of Germany, Japan, and Italy. In 1942 American and British ships landed in Algeria, the army was under the command of General Eisenhower who later became the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. The Allied victory in 1945 left the U.S. the leader of the western world. The 40-year-long rivalry with the Soviet Union became known as the Cold War. In 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall propsed an aid program to help rebuild the destroyed continent of Europe, the Marshall Plan. But the Soviets and their block rejected the offer. In 1949 the United States formed the...
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The United States declared War on Great Britain on June 12, 1812. The war was declared as an end result of extended and aggressive clashes with Great Britain. The War of 1812 was not founded on a single reason; it was started for political, commercial and patriotic reasons. "It was always unpopular with a great number of the American people and it went badly for the Americans on the whole, but that was settled finally in 1814 on terms at least mildly favorable to the United States."1 The key events and causes of the War of 1812 all started in 1803. In Europe The Napoleonic war put Britain and France at war that affected trade with the United States. Napolean kept out British goods from "fortress Europe."2 American ships were caught in the middle as the British responded with a blockade. "American ships were seized by both sides, Great Britain seized 1,000 United States ships and France seized 500 U.S. ships, and American sailors were impressed into the British navy" 3. From 1803-1812 British impressed American sailors on the high seas. British captains took up to 14,000 American citizens to man British ships. In June 1807, just three miles off Norfolk, Virginia, the British ship H.M.S. Leopard stopped the U.S.S. Chesapeake in search of British deserters. The Leopard fired on the U.S.S. Chesapeake after refusing to be boarded. "The American commander, James Barron had no choice but to surrender."4 Four alleged British deserters were taken off the ship. After it was all over, three Americans were killed and eighteen were wounded. There was a great public outcry for war when the news reached the United States. The action of the British Navy was more than enough grounds for war and "if Congress had been in session it might have declared war."5 President Thomas...
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Introduction To The Topic American History X is a great film that portrays prejudice, stereotyping and conformity. Prejudice is negative attitudes toward others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group. Prejudice involves beliefs and emotions that can turn into hatred. Having an opinion or idea about a member of a group without really knowing that individual is a part of prejudice. Some people make judgments about a whole group of people without knowing very much about them. Sometimes people are afraid of those who seem different from them and unfortunately, they express that with name-calling and negative treatment. When people grow up with these ideas, sometimes it's hard to get rid of them. Like in the movie American History X, a father is sitting at the family dinner table and states his opinion of why he feels certain people of minority groups got their job. This influences how his children feel. Prejudice is a premature judgment, a positive or negative attitude towards a person or group of people, which is not based on objective facts. The prejudgments are usually based on stereotypes, which are shared beliefs about the characteristic traits, attitudes, and behaviors of members of various social groups including the assumption that the members of such groups are usually all alike. As the story line unfolds in American History X, the main character of the story will realize that not all people of a particular race are the same. A prejudgment may be based on an emotional experience we have had with a similar person, sort of our own personal stereotype. Stereotypes also provide us with role expectations. How we expect the other person or group to relate to us and to other people. Our culture has many of ready made stereotypes such as leaders...
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