The new American edition of the novel A Clockwork Orange features a final chapter that was omitted from the original American edition against the author's preference. Anthony Burgess, the novel's author, provided for the new edition an introduction to explain not only the significance of the twenty-first chapter but also the purpose of the entire book which was the fundamental importance of moral choice. Burgess states that the twenty-first chapter was intended to show the maturation or moral progress of the youthful protagonist, Alex. The omission of the twenty-first chapter resulted, according to Burgess, in the reduction of the novel from fiction to fable, something untrue to life. Human beings change, and Burgess wanted his protagonist to mature rather than stay in adolescent aggression. The twenty-first chapter shows this change, and the chapter is important because it includes Alex's mature assessment of his own adolescence and shows the importance of maturity to moral freedom which is Burgess's main point. Burgess has presented his definition of moral freedom in both his introduction and in his novel. This definition will be discussed and it will be shown how Burgess relates it to three kinds of clockwork oranges. Burgess's definition of moral freedom as the ability to perform both good and evil is presented by implication in his discussion of the first kind of clockwork orange. In his introduction, he states that if one "can only perform good or only perform evil, then he is a clockwork orange - meaning that he has the appearance of an organism lovely with colour and juice but is in fact only a clockwork toy to be wound up by God or the Devil or (since this is increasingly replacing both) the Almighty State." Burgess goes on to say, "It is as inhuman to be totally good as...
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Anthony Burgess has been heralded as one of the greatest literary geniuses of the twentieth century. Although Burgess has over thirty works of published literature, his most famous is A Clockwork Orange. Burgess's novel is a futuristic look at a Totalitarian government. The main character, Alex, is an "ultra-violent" thief who has no problem using force against innocent citizens to get what he wants. The beginning of the story takes us through a night in the life of Alex and his Droogs, and details their adventures that occupy their time throughout the night. At fifteen years old, Alex is set up by his Droogs-Pete, Dim, and Georgie-and is convicted of murder and sent to jail. At the Staja or state penitentiary, Alex becomes inmate number 6655321 and spends two years of a sentence of fourteen years there. Alex is then chosen by the government to undergo an experimental new "Ludovico's Technique." In exchange for his freedom, Alex would partake in this experiment that was to cure him of all the evil inside of him and all that was bad. Alex is given injections and made to watch films of rape, violence, and war and the mixture of these images and the drugs cause him to associate feelings of panic and nausea with violence. He is released after two weeks of the treatment and after a few encounters with past victims finds himself at the home of a radical writer who is strongly opposed to the new treatment the government has subjected him to. Ironically, this writer was also a victim of Alex's but does not recognize him. This writer believes that this method robs the recipient of freedom of choice and moral decision, therefore depriving him of being a human at all. These themes are played out and developed throughout...
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According to st augustine should members of the city of god regard political power as something that was good or badPolitics
According to St Augustine, should members of the City of God regard political power as something that was good or bad or with indifference? St Augustine has long held a reputation as one of the most influential and important political thinkers of all time. His ideologies and concepts which were formulated many centuries ago, have continued to hold their weight even in our contemporary world. It is this apparent ability to bridge the obvious cultural differences that remain between the society that St Augustine was writing in and our far more technologically and socially adept society that ensure that his documents relevance has not waned. His writings, as did many of his time, focus on the significance of religion and it's application within the political order that existed. One of St Augustine's most important theories was of the existence of the 'City of God'. To decipher how political power should have been viewed by the members of the City of God is a very complex issue because the writings are very intense and to come to a definitive answer would prove almost impossible because of the many interpretations that can be understood. However, it is an issue which can cause great debate and contains a number of issues which must be developed further. The City of God was one of St Augustine's most important writings and it's importance can not be forgotten. He placed great importance on the City of God and it's counterpart the Earthly City. St Augustine believed that every member of society would eventually become a member of one of these particular cities, this was to include those who had not yet even been born. In essence, every member of the social order had their destiny marked out and were to eventually arrive in one of these destinations. However, the two cities were not to be separated until the end of time and as a result members of the society...
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Apartheid in South Africa and U.S. Involvement African Politics Pols 4401-01 April 16th, 2002 From 1948 until 1991, South Africa was a nation separated by forced isolation. The word separateness in Afrikaans, the language of the descendants of Boer Trekkers, is "apartheid". For Afrikaners, the word would also come to mean white-minority rule in a society where everyone was separated by race according to law. Individual mentality, such as wanting to separate people so that you stay pure, should not violate the rights and freedom of anyone else. Justly, if an individual consciously chooses not to be around certain people, it should not restrict other people from living and mingling with whom they please. Passed from generation to generation was the unjust Boer mentality that, their way of thinking should be away of life for those they conquered. Harsh treatment and discrimination on behalf of British rule was a major catalyst for "The Great Trek". The cape farmers, known as Boers, were in opposition to the British ending slavery. Boers were economically and politically disadvantaged, for example, they were excluded from land ownership. Instead of them striving for a better life of self improvement through social equality, they sought to better themselves by being the ones doing the discriminating. The quest this group of people went on was for the purpose of manipulating the indigenous populations in order to gain political and economical advantages and power. And the Trekkers did accomplish these things through forcing their policy of apartheid upon the Africans, Indians, and Coloreds. Though 1948-1991 marks the legal period of Apartheid as a system of government in South Africa which, "required segregation in housing, education, employment, public accommodations , and transportation."(cd-rom) These type of living conditions were already a part of the social structure the Afrikaners were shaping. For instance, "Control was established over...
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History has shown that developing countries face many obstacles, one of which is disease. Diseases have had devastating effects on civilizations. The Roman Empire, Great Britain, China, and The United States all have had historical plagues that have killed thousands. The diseases that were so devastating to our past civilizations can now be seen in new civilizations, but in other forms. In the world today, nations like the United States and Great Britain have developed to a level where disease can be fought and prevented. Unfortunately, other nations have yet to develop to such a level. Even with treatment from other nations many nations still cannot afford the treatment needed. But, as millions die in South Africa each year, who is socially responsible or more importantly, who is going to pay for it? The South African government appears to be the reason for much of their problems. The South African government has failed at any attempt to stop their epidemic and has resisted their need for help. Since the South African government has neglected its own people outside measures appear to be needed. This has left the social responsibility to the world. The costs and efforts of this battle are tremendous and will take years along with billions of dollars to fight. In order to take on such a battle nations will need to unite and fight as one. Organizations like the United Nations and World Health Organization have already started this battle. With the support from pharmaceutical companies and their nations, the battle can be won. In doing so, the needs of all the groups must be considered. No burden should be left on the shoulders of any single entity. Pharmaceutical companies appear to be willing to cut the costs of their drugs to a rate that is not beneficial for them,...
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A clone is defined as a cell; group of cells, or organisms that are descended from a single original cell. Scientist Ian Wilmut can be credited with cloning the first mammal, Dolly the sheep, in February of 1997. From that point on ethical issues on cloning began to erupt. Many people are against cloning; then again many people are for human cloning. I am personally not against human cloning and feel that human cloning should be explored. There are many misconceptions of human cloning today. One misconception according to Herbert, Sheler, and Watson is that, "A human clone would not be an exact copy of the person who provided its DNA, but rather would be sort of delayed identical twin, as much as a separate individual as any twin." This is an argument against human cloning and many argue this quote in their favor say that parents who wish to clone a deceased child will end up with a second child who appears to look like the first child yet differ in personality. Parents could possibly be traumatized and become depressed when they come to realize that their second is not an exact replica of the first born. Yet Ronald Bailey goes against this idea in his article "Research into Human Cloning Should Not be Banned". He states, "What would a clone be? Well, he or she would be a complete human being who happens to share the same genes with another person. Today, we call such people identical twins. To my knowledge no one has argued that twins are immoral. Of course, cloned twins would not be the same age. But it is hard to see why this age difference might present an ethical problem--or give clones a different moral status." Lee Silver from the article "Human Cloning is Ethical"...
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INTRODUCTION I chose to do my report on cloning, or genetic engineering. Cloning is the technique of producing a genetically identical duplicate of an organism by replacing the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum with the nucleus of a body cell from the organism. Some people agree with this type of reproduction, where others do not agree with it and wish that it could be banned. Genetic engineering was first originated in the late 1960's and early 1970's. But the first experiments were not performed until the early 1990's when scientists began to experiment with the smallest human chromosomes, the Y chromosome and chromosome 21. They were broken down into different smaller parts so that the scientists could reproduce the parts in large quantities. Genetic reconstruction is being used to test and see if a baby is going to develop a hereditary disease that a parent might have passed on to the child. If it shows that the child is going to have this disease, reconstruction enzymes are used to cut apart the DNA of the parents, and the DNA pattern of cells from the fetus is compared. In many situations, the status of the fetus can be determined. As of right now, this process is applicable to thalassemias, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Another good discovery of genetic engineering was the discovery of oncogenes. Oncogenes are genes that play a specific role in causing some cancers. These genes could not have been discovered any other way than genetic engineering. In the future, scientists hope to be able to go in a cut out the oncogenes to try and prevent some cancers. Genetic engineering is being used many different ways to help better our lives. In my paper, I will describe the many different ways genetic engineering and cloning...
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Topic: The ethics of human cloning Specific Purpose: My goal for this speech is two-fold. First, I desire to encourage my audience to think about the ethics of human cloning and to form an opinion of their own. Second, and for those who have an opinion already, I hope to create a modification in my audience's attitude so that they may consider the side of the human cloning debate for which I stand: an advocate of human cloning. Central Idea: Although there are risks involved in human cloning, the possible benefits greatly out weigh the possible costs. Pattern of organization: Topical (persuasive) Introduction I. What have you heard? A. "Some people see things as they are and say why, I see things that never were and say why not." B. This famous quote by George Bernard Shaw underlies one of the hottest debates covered by newscasts today: human cloning. C. Modern technology has allowed us to clone animals. Many of these animals are mammals. If we can clone mammals and human beings are mammals, then surely, in time, we can clone human beings. D. This afternoon I am going to answer the question "Why?" – as in why we should clone humans, and I hope that by the end of this speech you will find no answer to the question "Why not?" (Connective: Let's look first at why human cloning has become such a hot topic of discussion…) Body I. What is the problem? A. One of the reasons that human cloning has become such a heated debate is because it interferes with the individual beliefs of each and every human being. 1. Human cloning contributes to the age-old debate of science vs. religion. a. Are there any moral and theological limits to technology? b. If we can clone a human being, should we? 2. The United States of America is such a great "melting pot," and it is absolutely impossible to make everybody happy. B....
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Technology has come a long way over the past century. There is an advance in medicine, equipment to help people with their everyday needs, and faster communication. Everyday someone is trying to improve or help society with inventions and discoveries. Scientists have been experimenting with the ability to clone since 1962, when John Gurdon claimed to have cloned frogs from adult cells. The next surprising outbreak in cloning was in 1996 when scientists successfully cloned an offspring from adult sheep cells. Now scientists want to move on to larger experiments in cloning. In 1997, Richard Seed announced his plans to clone a human. Human cloning is a controversial topic which is being argued in our nation's capital (John's Cloning Page). There are mixed views about human cloning and whether it will be good for society or bad. The sources that I found express different opinions about human cloning. Each source gives a great deal of reasons to support their view about human cloning. When I began my research I wanted to make sure I was using reliable resources. I decide to visit the official site online for human cloning. The website seems extremely reliable because on the top of the homepage, the creators state, "HumanCloning.org is the official site in support of human cloning technology. The Human Cloning Foundation has been determined to be a 501(c)3 non-profit organization and all donations are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law" (HumanCloning.com). This quote immediately caught my eye when I began scanning the page. By stating what kind of organization the webpage is for and how they are operated makes the researcher feel a little more comfortable when gathering information from this site. The site supplies the researcher with a numerous amount of links to help him understand everything there is to know about...
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In the realm of medical science, there have been and still are many different technological innovations, which lead to great controversy. Things such as abortion, artificial insemination, and even certain kinds of surgery that have proven successful for humanity have gone through much debate. Today, one of the hottest topics to be debated, just so happens to be one of these technological innovations. It is something that people tend to be either fore or against and not in-between. Human cloning, this current break through, is being discussed worldwide and is advancing in its use everyday. Many people, including myself, disagree with most types of cloning because it contradicts their beliefs. Because there still are those that push for its advancement it truly is becoming one of the largest controversies of our time. Thorough out my life, I have developed beliefs that are based on what the Bible teaches us. Because of this, I have to disagree with any practice of human cloning. The cloning of animals and plants on the other hand do not bother me and I see nothing wrong with it. Since we are given the domain in the Bible to rule over the world, which are the animals and plants, the cloning of these things to help humanity survive is all right. The video that was presented in class on cloning gave many different world-views in support on cloning and only a few in opposition of it. The one argument that I did agree with was from Russell Saltzman, a Lutheran reverend. The reverend could have benefited from therapeutic cloning but refused to take part in this sort of technology because of his beliefs taken from the Bible. He argued that in creating the embryo for this, he would be creating a life and then killing it simply for...
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