The highest aspiration of the common man is to lead a life where he can enjoy freedom of speech, freedom of belief and have no fear of suppression. Disregard and contempt for "Human Rights" have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind. "Human Rights" is a much used and abused term today, and is used extencivly for political gain. The term is is used to defend Human freedom as well as destroy it. People tend to attach importance to particular human rights issue according to ideology and political convenience. if a man is not to have recourse or rebellion against tyranny and oppression, taking law into their own hands,"Human Rights" should be built into the society as a natural rule. As a last resort only, law should be applied as a protection. Todd Gitlin in his eassy on Human rights states- "Human rights: the literal words deserve a moment's scrutiny. Human: member of the species, the single race homo sapiens. Whatever persons are called, or call themselves, wherever they live, they are human. Therefore human rights: benefits to which people are entitled simply by virtue of being human. Just after the world war II, it was realized that citizens of many countries lived under the control of tyrants, having no recourse other than war to relieve inhuman treatment given to them. Unless some way was found to to provde justice to these people, they could revolt and become the catalyst for another wide-scale war including the Nuclear war. This concern, led to the majority of governments in the world to come to the conclusion that basic human rights must be protected. This is not only for the sake of the individuals and countries involved, but to preserve the human race. The United Nations Charter, Universal Declaration...
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On December tenth 1948 in the Palis de Chaillot in Paris, the United Nation's General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document is made up of thirty articles which deal with a series of basic human rights and duties. It follows the premise that " the declaration is a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the people of member states themselves and among the people of territories under their jurisdiction." However this is not always the case, infraction to the human rights code are all too often practiced, today as much as 50 years ago. War crimes in the former Yugoslavia, terrorist acts in the Gaza strip, Political prisoners in China, the disappercidos of Chile and Argentina, female genital mutilation in orthodox Muslim communities are all too common. However the message this document stands for is one for the universality of man and woman kind alike. It tells of such basic rights as freedom and life that are owed to every human being regardless of the language she speaks. They are inalienable in the fact that human rights have no boundary and are sovereign to no king or state. Shue seems to disagree with this, since in describing the comparative advantage theory of government he mentions that "each nation's own government (or other social institutions) are best able to care for the welfare of the people of that nation..." This latest theory provides some backing for 'cultural soveirgnty', however it does so by demeaning the universality of...
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POLITICAL - Canada and Colombia have had unbroken bilateral relations since 1953 - Canadian involvement has intensified in recent years through high-level visits, o An evolving development assistance program o A growing source-country refugee program o Security sector cooperation o Cooperation in the area of landmines o Connectivity initiatives o Healthy trade relationship. - Since 1999, there have been unprecedented levels of senior-level contact between Canada and Colombia - Former President Pastrana made the first-ever state visit to Canada by a Colombian president in May 1999, and attended the Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001. - The January 2000 visit by former Minister Lloyd Axworthy to Colombia was the first by a Canadian foreign affairs minister in 18 years. Since 2000, there have also been visits by International Trade Minister Pierre Pettigrew and former Secretary of State (Latin America and Africa) David Kilgour. In February 2002, following 11 months of public hearings in Ottawa, members of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade (SCFAIT) travelled to Colombia to gain greater insight into the human rights situation there. Canada supports a negotiated solution to the Colombian conflict, and participated in peace talks with the FARC during the Pastrana administration as one of the Group of 10 facilitator countries. Concrete steps by the illegal armed groups to reduce the violence are essential for progress towards peace. Canada condemns terrorists acts and violations of international humanitarian law regardless of which actor commits such acts. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) allocates $8-10 million a year through all channels to Colombia. The objectives of Canadian development assistance in Colombia include: 1. increasing Colombian capacity to meet the basic human needs and protect the human rights of people affected by the armed conflict; 2. supporting equitable participation in establishing the foundations for peace; and 3. improving Colombian capacity to address some of the key factors that...
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The Problem: In the past thirty years saturated markets as well as growth potential have caused many corporations to seek out international ventures. These ventures are certainly logical from the corporate standpoint. They have a huge growth potential, maximize profits, and allow businesses to enter different, usually unsaturated markets. But these gains do not come without a cost. These costs are not financial but must still be examined. In the past international businesses, especially businesses in the manufacturing sector have been criticized by many labor, political, human rights, and environmental organizations as being, to say the least, unethical. Many of these businesses, weather they realize it or not, have exploited workers, polluted the environment, and aided corrupt governments. These facts have forced international businesses to reexamine their priorities. More often than not priorities involving profits become more important than ethical business practices. In 1992 one such company involved in the reexamining process was Levi-Strauss. This company was unsure about there future manufacturing commitment in The Peoples Republic of China. Levi's, a company that prides itself on ethical business practices, was unsure if China was a country that meshed with their companies' ethical background. Levi's is caught in a "Catch--22." On one hand they have the future growth, and profitability that manufacturing in China would bring, but on the other hand manufacturing in China risks there hard earned reputation, bad publicity, patent infringement, and loss of assets due to unclear business laws. Basically Levi's must decide what is more important, profits or people. Why Choose China In International Business? 1) Huge Growth potential: China is one of the major "Up and Coming" nations of the world. They were in an economic boom (1992), recording annual growth rates of ten percent. The U.S. Treasury Department predicted that China will soon have the second largest economy...
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We have highlighted in this report all about Shell's 'unethical' environmental and alleged socially unacceptable practices, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. But, has Shell recognised its wrongdoings and bad practices and the implications of these actions on the local environment and population? Over the last eight years, Shell has undergone a massive change in its projected public image. In the last decade Shell was frequently receiving media attention for all the wrong reasons, from Brent Spar to human rights in Nigeria. However, Shell has worked hard to convince the world's press and governments that it now practices sound social and environmental decisions. In doing so Shell has internationally committed itself to many, publicly seen as 'ethical' ideals. For instance in 1995, Shell announced that as an organisation it would practice the idea of 'Sustained Development'. This is the concept within a business that growth and economic values are based on environmental quality. As a practice, this concept discourages natural resource consumption and high energy use. Although, this idea at face value is excellent, in that it gives a good framework for environmental decisions, many of the world's population may not understand what the ideals of sustained development are. As Shell is one of the world's largest natural resource consumers it is contradictory, as one of its targets for 2002 was a 3% increase in production of oil. Shell met this target by acquiring Enterprise Oil UK. As a concept and ideal, sustained development is there to provide guidelines, as mentioned earlier one of which is to discourage the consumption of natural resources. Shell cannot fully commit to this practice, as its main product is a natural resource. It seems laughable that shell even forwarded the concept in the first place as a basis for their environmental decision making. If Shell is to...
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Every one has human rights. they can be civil, political, social, cultural, or economic rights. Civil and political rights are also called first generation rights. These rights give an individual the right to protect them selves from the government. They can there for participate in free speech, voting and fair trial. They include, the right to life, the right from slavery, the right to marry and have a family, freedom of opinion and expression, freedom to leave and return to ones country, freedom of movement and residence and the right to self-determination. social, cultural and econimic rights are known as second generation rights and are concerned with the material cultural wellbeing of people. this includes having the rights to have holidays and get paid for them, the right to employment and education, rest and lesure, join and form trade unions, equal pay for equal work, and the right to health services. solidarity rights are known as third generation rights. they include the right to peace and the right to a healthy enviroment. Solidarity rights do not necessarily belong to the individual as do other human rights but to the people. In other words solidarity rights are collective rather than individual in nature. Collective rights are the rights that do not belong to an individual but to a group of people such as the continued survival of a race of people. some rights of individuals are also collective in their nature, such as the right to freedom of association and freedom of religion....
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everyone in the world has human rights. they can be civil, political, social, cultural or econimic rights. Civil and political rights are also called first generation rights. these rights give an individual the right to protect themslves from the government. they can therfor participate in free speech, voting and fair trial. they include the following, the right to life, the right from slavery, the right to marry and have a family, freedom of opinion and expression, the freedom to leave and return ones country, freedom of movement and residence and the right to self-determination. Social, cultural and economic rights are known as second generation rights and are concerned with the material cultural wellbeing of people. this includes having the rights to have holidays and get paid for them, the right to employment and education, rest and leisure, join and form trade unions, equal pay for equal work, and the right to heath services. Solidarity rights are knowm as third generation rights. they include the righ to peace and the right to a healthy enviroment. Solidarity rights do not necessarily belong to the individual as do other human rights but to the people. in other words solidarity rights are collective rather than individual nature. collective rights are rights that do not belong to an individual but to a group of people such as the contuinued survival of a race of people. some rights of individuals are also collective in their nature such as the right of freedom of assosiation and freedom of religion....
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It seems as though the concept of natural rights have lost credibility due to its shift from the people?s hands to the government?s advantage. During the world?s history, people have realized and identified what is necessary in order to lead a minimally good life. These essential elements have become moral truths, also known as natural justice. ?[Natural [justice] is that which has the same validity everywhere and does not depend upon acceptance.? (Nicomachean Ethics, 189 Aristotle). Therefore, society upholds moral truths despite government rulings. Many ideas of human rights commence at religious texts and continue through the great philosophers of our time. The Bible claims that the divine image created all human beings; therefore, all human beings are equal in God?s eyes. Thus, it is necessary to protect equality in all human beings. By the formation of Christianity in the early centuries, Christians spread these basic rights because they are the will of God. By the diffusion of these Christian ideas, the concept of natural law was introduced to the individual before even having established a governmental structure. In recent centuries, numerous movements for political change have occurred with one of their reasons being human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), one of the most recent declarations of human rights, occurred after World War II. This doctrine was established to avoid the horrific acts of the Holocaust from reoccurring. This doctrine lists specific human rights, such as the right not to be tortured, the right to own property, and the right to asylum. These rights are fundamental and take part in various other doctrines, declarations and constitutions. From this point, one can see how human rights have slowly moved away from society?s moral code to political interests. The beginning of the United States of America is another example of political change by...
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Persuasive piece "whether or not breast feeding should be allowed in the work place during question time" This issue is concerning the parliament whether or not breast feeding should be allowed in the workplace during question time. This was raised by Kirstie Marshall, a new labor MP. Ms Marshall was ejected by the sergeant-at-arms because of the parliamentary rule that does not recognize "strangers" or unelected members in the house. Kirstie had to deal with a hungry baby and she "whacked her on her breast" thinking that it was a natural mother hood procedure not knowing the impact it was going to cause. I personally believe that breast feeding is one of life's most touching natural occurrences; it is a beautiful gift that has been a part of life for many years. Women should have the right to provide for their babies as a mother and should not be excluded from any work place of employment. I feel that this is a discriminating act for women in the work force. People should commend the fact that mothers are able to sustain professional care as well as full filling their obligations for their child/children. Parliament sitting hours need to become more family friendly. Can't you see how hypocritical this is, the government allocates money to breast feeding, so this whole issue is going against what the government has promoted. Ejecting a mother from parliament, due to breast feeding is violating human rights, the human rights of babies and the human rights of mothers. I thought Australia was a progressive society. It seems to me inconceivable that a baby should not be fed when it needs to be fed. We were all babies once and we all know the feeling of being hungry and wanting food, you want it straight away just like a baby would. The baby...
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Brianne Miller Mr. Kauffman-DBQ Despite the horrors of the Holocaust, abuses of human rights have continued in the post World War II era. There are many atrocities that continued, however there have also been efforts to stop these abuses. Document 1 demonstrates the pass-system of apartheid in Africa. The pass-system was a system established by the English, where only the Native Americans had to carry a pass around with them in case they were stopped and checked by the English Police. This "pass-system" violated human rights because only blacks were subject to this system. If they were caught without a pass with them, they would be arrested. This was unfair to the blacks and violated their rights. Document 4 also states examples of how human rights were still being violated in the post World War II era. Document 4 is an article entitled "The Killing of Cambodia" published in 1982. It states that education and religious practices were not allowed. This violated the human right to freely practice religion and education. This article also states that families were broken apart in Cambodia, which is also another violation of human rights. A genocide in Rwanda violated human rights as well. Document 6 states that 500,000 people were carried out in the spring of 1994 in Rwanda. Thousands of Africans were raped, tortured and beaten. The international community did not do anything about these human rights that were being violated. The United Nations took action and got involved to get rid of these abuses of human rights. However, rationalizing prosecutions seemed impossible since Rwanda's justice system had been destroyed. Although many woman's rights were violated post WWII, efforts were also taken to end these violations. Document 3 states actions that were taken to end apartheid. For example, in 1973, the United Nation General Assembly declares apartheid a crime...
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