Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was born on the 27th March, 1886 in Aachen, Germany. Over the past century he proved himself to be one of the fathers of modern, architectural design. Throughout much of the 20th century Mies changed the face of architecture with his radical ideas and concepts that were years ahead of their time. He was able to challenge the boundaries of architecture and these timeless buildings are still today viewed as contemporary masterpieces. Through these works Mies has become the name behind innovative architecture and his legacy of 'less is more' was an integral facet of many of his designs. His works have been an inspiration for many other buildings around the world and they will continue to live on and inspire others for years to come. Mies started his architectural career in Berlin, Germany where he studied under architect Bruno Paul and later on Peter Behrens. At this time Mies studied the architecture of mainly Frank Lloyd Wright which later provided great inspiration for his own works. The majority of van der Rohe's early career was spent in Berlin, until 1912 when he opened his own firm. Later on Mies moved to America and became a citizen to escape Nazi Germany. Here his career really started to take off and he gained greater recognition for his works culminating at a peak with the construction of the Barcelona Pavillion. Even from many of Mies's very first concepts, his designs were seen as extremely different from the norm, especially when compared to other architectural works of the same time period. His 'less is more' philosophy embedded himself as a breakthrough architect in the early 1900's. This philosophy was clearly demonstrated in one of his most famous works, The Barcelona Pavilion (The German Pavilion). The ceremonial hall was constructed in...
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Mies Van Der Rohe's non-rhetorical influence During the early to mid-1900s, modernist architecture was commonly being linked strongly with technical innovation and standardisation. It was a new face for architecture that, in contrast with the more traditional formalist architecture, had attracted a lot of attention both positively and negatively. Not only this, but it was attacked from several different angles. While LeCorbusier treated the new architecture as an engineering project and others like the Italians confronted it from a more traditional plain, Mies Van Der Rohe and those he influenced took a less formal stance with their work. Realising that such problems many practitioners set-out to solve were unsolvable, Mies adopted a unique flavour in his work that both worked with the present as well as embracing new technologies. For his whole career he kept to a simple theme of "less is more" and in turn set the stage for the every-growing minimalist movement. Flying in the face of a current Western obsession with presentation, this conventional and rationalist approach for architecture was totally new and broke-down many new barriers when it came to exploiting the capabilities of pre-standardised components. Mies never liked to use the word 'design' and preferred to see his projects as 'building' projects. With this, his works were very similar, yet very different on a close scale. While works such as the Lakeside Towers in Chicago and the Seagram building in New York appeared to share a common façade treatment, the materials and fittings on a small scale varied. With the apartments, each room would be fitted with a grey shutter blind for two reasons. One was for occupant comfort and the other was to create a variation and patterning system with the façade depending on how the various tenants would have their blinds set. The next-to-naked profile of Mies's...
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Philips and Matsushita, two major consumer electronics companies, each differed in their overall strategies on how to achieve global competitiveness, yet each has experienced major changes and restructurings over the years that have essentially affected their abilities to remain competitive in this industry. In the end, both companies have diverged from the original organizational structures that their founders had based their companies' local existence on, yet some key strategies have remained consistent over the years no matter who was leading the organization. Despite some strategic failures, each new CEO of the two organizations has contributed their unique views to the organization and has pursued actions that they feel were necessary in order for the company to compete globally. Philips, originally founded in the Netherlands, has had key strategies that have guided it since its beginning. First, Gerard Philips, its founder, focused on producing only light bulbs, which at the time was his core business, despite other electronics producers' race to diversify. This is consistent with Van der Klugt's strategy of defining a core business for Philips during his time as CEO, where he decided to sell off their non-core business of domestic appliances to Whirlpool and their medical systems business to GE. Boonstra, like Van der Klugt, named consumer electronics as Philips' future core competency. All of these strategies that focus on Philips' core competencies have resulted in overall performance improvements by all that have adopted it. On the other hand, CEOs Timmer and Kleisterlee have developed their own diversification strategies for Philips. Timmer had expanded the electronics business to include software, services and multimedia, while Kleisterlee wanted Philips to be a technology developer/global marketer. Both strategies ultimately diverged from Philip's core businesses and tried to define its businesses too broadly, which resulted in miserable failure. Another strategy that was prevalent during...
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ABSTRACT The values for the universal gas constant R, and the volume of one mole of gas were determined. The experiment values of R and the volume of one mole of gas were then compared to the accepted values. The experimental values of R obtained were 0.09067 (L∙atm/mol∙K), 0.09514 (L∙atm/mol∙K), and 0.09040 (L∙atm/mol∙K). The molar volumes of hydrogen gas obtained were 0.1306 (L/mol), 0.1365 (L/mol), and 0.1390 (L/mol). The percent error of R was 12.20%, and the percent error of the molar volume was 99.40%. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment was to determine the value of the universal gas constant R (L∙atm/mol∙K), and the molar volume of hydrogen gas. In this experiment, a known mass of magnesium reacted with an excess amount of hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. The reaction that took place in the experiment was as follows: Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) The balanced net ionic equation was as follows: Mg (s) + 2H+ (aq) Mg2+ (aq) + H2 (g) The value of R was calculated using the Ideal Gas Law (PV = nRT), and the van der Waal's equation (P + an2/V2) (V-nb) = nRT. The value of R should be closer to the R value obtained from van der Waal's equation than the Ideal Gas Law because carbon dioxide was not under ideal conditions. The molar volume of hydrogen gas was determined at a known temperature and pressure. The hydrogen gas was collected in a graduated cylinder by the downward displacement of water. The volume of gas collected was then converted to the volume of pure hydrogen using the Ideal Gas Law. The experiment was important because it demonstrates the behavior of gases when it is not under ideal conditions, such as high pressures and low temperatures. Understanding the behavior of gases is important in understanding the...
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" The Nazis had nothing to do with the burning of the Reichstag. The young Dutchman, Van der Lubbe, did it all alone, exactly as he claimed. Hitler and the other Nazis were taken by surprise. They genuinely believed that the Communists had started the fire, and they introduced the Enabling Law because they believed absolutely that they were threatened with a communist rising." 1. The Communists were blamed for the fire according to sources 1,2,3,4,5. Here is the evidence I have found to support this. In source 1 Von Papen's diary it is clear that Goering is convinced that " this is a Communist crime against the new Government." The newspaper reporter Delmer reporting in "der Spiegel" is also firm in his recording of the exchanges between Goering and Hitler, Goering informed Hitler that it was "undoubtedly the work of the Communists." And that several of the Communists were present at the Reichstag before the fire started. Delmer also tells us that whilst Hitler appeared initially unconvinced of Communist involvement in the fire, he was eager to believe that the Communists were responsible. Goebbel's diaries record details of his opinion of the fire, he is plain, there is again, "no doubt that the Communists" are to blame. The Nazis said it was an attempt to seize power by creating an atmosphere of panic. They also believed that Van der Lubbe was one of a number of communist arsonists responsible for the crime. "The Times" newspaper Source 4, reports using a communication from the Prussians, in which very emotive language is used. "…The most outrageous act yet committed by Bolshevism…" Diels in Source 5 tells in his memoirs of the fire and reports Hitler's reaction to the scene quite emotively. Hitler is screaming in rage about his desire to have all...
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WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE REICHSTAG FIRE? 1. Rudolf Diels, who was the head of the Prussian police at the time, wrote source A. It says that Van Der Lubbe was caught red handed and that he must have acted alone, there was no proof of anyone else being involved, not even communists. During Van Der Lubbe's trial in 1933, he confessed he had set fire to the Reichstag, but said he hadn't been helped. Source B shows that he was insistent that he had worked alone. This agrees with source A, but Van Der Lubbe might have been lying to protect the other people who had helped him, who probably were important members of the communist party according to Goring's theory. If he was lying, he could also be covering the tracks of the Nazi party, who could have set it all up and, as they did, place the blame on the communists. Rudolf Diels' account could be seen as reasonably reliable. However, it was written 12 years after the incident so Diels' memory might not have been that reliable after all. Van Der Lubbe's speech is not a reliable source either because he could have been protecting other people. It was known that he was half-blind, mentally slow, injured (leg) and that he would have done anything to have his name down in history. So source B, even though it was said only shortly after the event, might not be reliable at all. So source B supports source A in the way that they both say Van Der Lubbe acted alone, but none of the source are totally reliable, so we cannot really use them to prove the theory of Van Der Lubbe acting alone. 2. Rudolf Diels, a high-ranking Nazi official, wrote an account of the fire, source A. That account seems...
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DUTCH PRESENT-DAY SOCIETYFall semester 2003/2004QUESTION 3 OF THE EXAMa few remarks:®Use your own words in formulating your answer.®Give references to page numbers where necessary. ®Your answer will be about 500 words in length.®Hand in your answer, in cPeople
DUTCH PRESENT-DAY SOCIETYFall semester 2003/2004QUESTION 3 OF THE EXAMa few remarks:®Use your own words in formulating your answer.®Give references to page numbers where necessary. ®Your answer will be about 500 words in length.®Hand in your answer, a) The first reason that Van der Horst displays in his work for the increasing loneliness within Dutch society is the depillarization within society. Therefore getting rid of secularisation and enforcing individualism. Van der Horst explains that the Dutch believe that this lack of contact with others is on the increase, because people previously were more united in groups. The religious pillars within society have broken down leading to a society where individualism is important and therefore an increase in loneliness and independence. People used to help each other but today Van der Horst believes they wish to help themselves. Secondly, Van der Horst sees that family networks have been destroyed, resulting in lack of family connections previously considered to be of great importance. The explanations to the breakdown's of family networks would be due to the modernisation of society, such as more efficient ways of travelling. Thirdly, as consequences of the above old women become increasingly lonely due to loose family connections. Women have a tendency to out live men and therefore suffer in silence because of the way that the Dutch believe they should live. In other words keep both your happy times and sad times to yourself, you would not like to place a burden on others. b) According to Van der Horst one way in which the Dutch try to combat the aura of loneliness within the Netherlands is through taking part within associations. The explanation of going to these associations is that the Dutch culture rarely allows strangers to talk, and common grounding is an excellent place to strike up conversation and to...
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Vincent van Gogh was born on March 30, 1853 in Zundert, a village in the southern province of North Brabant. He was the eldest son of the Reverend Theodorus van Gogh and Anna Cornelia Carbentus. At the age of 16 he started work at the Hague gallery of the French art dealers, in which his uncle Vincent was a partner. Vincent was dismissed from the firm at the beginning of 1876. He then took a job as an assistant teacher in England, but disappointed by the lack of prospects he returned to Holland at the end of the year. He now decided to follow in his father's footsteps and become a clergyman. After a brief spell of training as an evangelist, Van Gogh went to the Borinage mining region in the south of Belgium. In 1879, however, his appointment was not renewed. After a long period of solitary soul-searching in the Borinage, Van Gogh set his sights on becoming an artist. His earlier desire to help his fellow-man as an evangelist gradually developed into an urge, as he later wrote, to leave mankind "some memento in the form of drawings or paintings - not made to please any particular movement, but to express a sincere human feeling." His parents could not go along with this latest change of course, and the financial responsibility for Vincent passed to his brother Theo, who was now working in the Paris gallery of Boussod the successors of Goupil & Co. It was because of Theo's loyal support that Van Gogh later came to regard his oeuvre as the fruits of his brother's efforts on his behalf. When Van Gogh decided to become an artist, no one, not even he himself, suspected that he had extraordinary artistic gifts. He evolved astonishingly rapidly from an inept but fervent...
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The traditional idea of an artist standing at an easel is probably not a reality today. All the skills that have been acquired over hundreds of years are now being lost. Painting no longer has the force it once had. 500 years ago, people couldn't read. Artists at that time were very important people. People had to look at their paintings to find out about things, this time was called the renaissance. Impressionism Impressionists were a break from tradition. They were the first artists to use bright colours. This is because they took their canvases outside. When you work out of doors, you have to work quite quickly to catch sunsets e.t.c. For the people in those days, the pictures looked unfinished and messy, so when they tried to exhibit their pictures in all the official galleries, the academy refused. So in 1874 they organised their own exhibition in a photographers studio and it was nicknamed by a journalist, that they weren't really paintings, just impressions. They didn't paint what people thought were suitable subjects. As well as the usual slapdash paintings, the critics didn't like the things that they painted e.g. railway stations, people in cafes, ordinary people doing ordinary things. The impressionists reflected the political thinking of the time; they started to pay attention to the ordinary people and not just the rich. The impressionists said, "We want to paint modern life in a modern way." They used, what was then, the modern discovery of photography. It helped them paint things that only lasted for a short time. They were also influenced by newly discovered work by Japanese artists. One of the most important impressionists was Claude Monet. He was born in 1840 and died in 1926. The most important part about him was that he decided to work exclusively in front of his subject. He loved all...
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The painting I have picked is Vincent Van Gogh's The Starry Night, which was done on oil canvas, in 1889. I'm not really familiar with Van Gogh's work, but this is one piece of work of his that stands out to me. Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night is an excellent painting in which Van Gogh paints a picture that is colorful and descriptive. This painting can be described as puzzling and fascinating. It can signify a variety of moods, objects, and atmosphere. Artwork can be, and was, found around the whole world. What makes art interesting is that it can be created in any way, shape or form with any materials. It seems that the artwork can also tell us a lot about the artist. In this case, the artwork is abstract art because of the following reasons. For example if you look at the sky in this picture you can see how it is in a swirling motion, in real life you would not see this kind of thing happening. In addition if you look at the stars in the sky they are unusually depicted making them look really big and bright, in real life you would not see stars like these unless your drunk or an asteroid was falling. Real stars are very small, not as bright as the ones in the painting and you could barely see them sometimes. Another way of telling that this painting is abstract art is by how bright of the light of the stars and moons are where they are almost lighting up the whole town. In real life the moon and stars could light up a town but not as bright as the one in the picture. In conclusion this painting has many different feelings, meaning a person could see it totally differently...
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