Cognitive Psychology Week 1 – Lecture 1 Cognition – matching the world to internal representations - language and word recognition - pattern recognition - visual imagery - memory we will focus on memory - problems – when cognitive processes go wrong brain damage dyslexia amnesia – viral infections, car accidents, severe alcoholism, old age (alzeihemers) – they don't lose knowledge of the world, but once it has gone beyond immediate awareness you cant recognize/remember what has actually happened to you. Memory is relevant to clinical psychology False memories - how they occur and how to distinguish b/w false and true beliefs Transfer appropriate processing - if you match retrieval process in memory tests to the way in which you learn. Cognition Process Conscious and subconscious processes · Conscious – reminders we give ourselves to remember events · Unconscious – no conscious insight of how processes work, cant study by introspection – no conscious awareness. How to study cognition · experimental psychology, accuracy or reaction time in normal subjects. · At the mind level – brain function - neuroscience done on animals – but not much done on cognition. · Studying brains in action in humans à functional brain imaging – what aspects of brain activated in certain tasks · Cognitive neuropsychology – look at those with brain damage in specific areas – localized brain damage which affects cognitive processes in one area, but not others i.e long or short term memory – is their overlap in processes?? · Computer processing – Wont cover Week 1 - Lecture 2 MEMORY 1. Definition of memory - Result of learning i.e modification of behaviour and/or knowledge through experience. Complicated by 2,3,4 2. Stage of memory – stages of processing · Encoding (acquisition) - study phase (phases of experiments on memory) · Storage (retention) – distractor phase · Retrieval – test phase Encoding – learn material - at a party and processed info. Not deliberate study Storage – before you try and access memory it must be retained in this...
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where as the basic thinker is only as good as the mold that made him the extraordinary thinker is a superhuman idealistic machine that is in need if a serious reconsideration on the part of the rest of humanity. although the freedom fighters arrived one by one as the appointed time arrived. no one risked traveling with any other rebel, each wore a disguise each came prepared with an excuse for his business down in the suboid tunnel. bobo arrived down in the tunnels with margo to start a little hanky panky to have little suboids of their own see spot run run jim run put it in margo. of all the things ive lost imiss my mind the most of all the things ive lost i miss my minfd the most.can the dog run as fast as the fox im not sure about that cant i run faster than the dog?? for a final sum up of all the things ive just said here a are you listening no the cow needs to be milked so i gotta go eat shit and die you nazi sons of bitches in eed my essay real fast so i will type this really fast and get it over with mech mech the the the the the the the the the th row row jump this damn thidnfg we are betryaed cried one of the rebels the animals have come to eat us alive this is not cool said the other can i have some of your chicken sad the frog it looks good...
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INTRODUCTION The way we live tells us who we are, so our homes are dead giveaways. We Filipinos are known around the world for our unconditional caring for our elders. This thesis, "REINVENTING EARLY FILIPINO TRADITIONAL HOUSES INTO A CONTEMPORARY FILIPINO RESIDENCE", is a tribute to our forefathers to somehow show them that their heritage is still alive and as well appreciated. And what better way to show them appreciation than to relive their work in the past and incorporate it in the future. What people in other countries call vernacular architecture we call folk architecture here, but mostly we identify the rural bahay kubo as a "native" house. The bahay kubo is by far the Filipino majority's prime idea of a traditional Filipino house. Vernacular architecture goes beyond the bahay kubo. From its origins as a rural bamboo and nipa house, it evolved into the urban bahay na bato (house of stone) during the Spanish colonial era. From there, certain features evolved into the houses built in the early part of the 20th century during the American regime. On the other hand, the early inhabitants of the Philippines were of many different peoples and of these peoples spawned the rich cultural diversity that we have now. Some ethnic communities scattered across the country, even to this day, still live governed by their ancestor's culture. Unblemished, these people's culture stands strong that even through the test of time, they still live in their ethnic traditional homes. These traditional houses are the architectural heritage left to us by our early Filipino ancestors. However, in this day and age, these traditional houses have become an anachronism. The more fortunate of their residents have, over time and generations, built new houses of cement roofed with galvanized iron roofing. It matters little that the new house is...
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A Day to Remember I awoke the morning of September eleventh like any other day. Comfortably lying in my bed, warm and snug. I was dreaming and at total peace, oblivious to the world around me. Suddenly, I sprang up to the blaring sound of my pulsating alarm clock. The sun was up and shining into my bedroom window. I got up, looked around, and observed the horizon with a disgruntled look on my face; admiring its beauty. I did not know it that chilly morning, but September eleventh would change my life forever. It changed my perception about fear, my awareness about world issues, and my view on the preciousness of life. As I was getting ready for school, I felt a fearful of the new year ahead of me. I felt disinclined to go to school that day, knowing that I had a plenty of difficult classes to take. I reluctantly trudged to my first class in the brisk fall air. Within seconds of taking my seat, someone asked me if I had heard about the plane that crash accident in New York. Five minutes later my teacher began informing the class about what was really going on, she turned on the television. As I was watching the second plane crash into the World Trade Center, I knew it was no accident. I was so shocked that I forgot all about being tired, and glued my eyes to the television with full intensity. I immediately began to fear the worst; I imagined planes falling out of the sky everywhere all across America. I feared that maybe our city would be targeted next. But most of all, I feared the beginning of a new world war. My fears were confirmed when I heard reports of other planes falling out of the...
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Consciousness is the awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment. Consciousness is divided into two broad states: waking and altered states of consciousness. In waking consciousness, we are awake and aware of our thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. When we enter an altered state of consciousness, our mental state differs from waking consciousness. Sleeping and dreaming our natural altered states of consciousness. Unnatural ones include hypnosis, and ones caused by drug use. Sleep occurs in four different stages of sleep. Stage 1 sleep is the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-voltage brain waves. Stage 2 sleep is a sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles". Stage 3 sleep is a sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern. Stage 4 sleep is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation. Several times a night, when sleepers are in stage 1 sleep, sleepers heart rate increases and becomes irregular, their blood pressure rises, their breathing rate increases, and males have erections. This is known as rapid eye movement sleep or REM sleep. There are several theories that try to explain why we dream. There is the unconscious wish fulfillment theory, which is Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers wish to fulfill. According to Freud, the disguised or real meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects are known as latent content of dreams. The overt storyline of dreams is known as the manifest content of dreams. Today scientists don't really agree with Freud and his view. According to the dreams-for-survival theory, dreams permit information that is critical for our daily...
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... rank likes her straight forwardness in Scene 1 but to his disappointment she starts to loose her identity towards the end of the play. "I think you're the first breath of air that's been in this room for years." At the summer school Rita has learned about authors and she meets other students. Frank is very impressed of her abilities. She changes her lifestyle with new clothes and a new hair colour and was also influenced of her flatmate Trish. Trish encourages Rita a lot and she in under her influence. "As Trish says there is not a lot of point in discussing beautiful literature in an ugly voice." She is changing herself by becoming more like others, Rita is losing her individuality because of Trish's opinions. "Me an' Trish sat up last night and read them. She agrees with me...what makes it more-more...What did Trish say--?" She forgets her lines and we can tell that she is using other people's opinions and fa ... Below is a short sample of the essay "'Educating Rita' shows how a comedy can raise serious issues. Discuss". If you sign up you could be reading the rest of this essay in under two minutes. Registered users should log in to view the full essay. ... dismay, along with it much of her charm. Act one, scene seven is a crucial scene in Rita's development. Having been unable to pluck up the confidence or courage to cross over the threshold to Frank's dinner party, she comes to Frank to justify herself. Rita explains that one of her main concerns was that she might have brought the wrong type of wine. Here again, Russell undercuts the seriousness of his humour. "It wouldn't have mattered if you'd walked in with a bottle of Spanish plonk," says Frank. "It was Spanish" comes the reply. The invitation...
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Introduction Positive accounting theory (PAT) is a general term for any theory that provides descriptive information regarding the behavior of accountants. The title has been used by Watts and Zimmerman and this is largely an expansion of previous studies carried out firstly by Fama and later by Ball & Brown in the 1960's. In looking at the apparent acceptance by politicians, firms and wide publication in academic journals PAT could easily be mistaken as being a success. A deeper analysis of the premises of PAT, its questionable scientific status, and the groups upon whom this theory has appealed to would suggest that it is flawed on many levels and is little more than an argument for deregulation and market capitalism. This opposes its claim to be a useful theory used regularly by those concerned with the effects of accounting policy on the status of the firm. The Premises of Positive Accounting Theory. Positive Accounting Theory finds its roots with the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH). The EMH was developed by Fama in the 1960's and is based on economic principles and assumes a perfect market where there is information symmetry and no transaction costs. The semi strong form of EMH argues that capital markets will reflect all information that is publicly available and it is this form that Watts and Zimmerman claim to be predominant. The EMH was used in a study performed by Ball and Brown during the same period. The Ball and Brown study rejected the argument put forward by normative theorists that present accounting results were misleading and irrelevant and stated that historical cost accounting is actually useful (Deegan 2000). This was because their study demonstrated that unexpected accounting earnings produced abnormal returns in capital markets. This was also the case for unexpected poor earnings as they produced abnormal losses in capital...
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The cultural and developmental aspects of American history in the 17th and 18th centuries are certainly among the most important and influential factors in the shaping of this country's long and storied history. Historiographically speaking, there are undoubtedly thousands upon thousands of different studies and opinions on the most influential cultural strides of early Americans well as the pros and cons that each colonial region developed in shaping America and readying it for the Revolutionary Era. Each of these four studies brings a slightly different and even, at times, conflicting approach to analyzing the cultural and social roots of early America, but each one provides a fresh perspective that enhances the idea that America is a true "melting pot" of ideas, social values, and cultural traits. Zuckerman, in his article, focuses his attention on the middle colonies and the erroneous tendencies of historians to ignore controversial or pertinent historical issues in favor of obvious, harmless social arguments. Historians have focused on New England as the true "birthplace of America" because of its early literature and thought that focused solely on Puritanism, and therefore offered an obvious and easy starting point with which to measure the region's cultural metamorphasis. However, as Zuckerman points out, New England was fairly unrepresentative of the real America, as it was a homogenous society dominated by English Puritans and their inflexible doctrines and unstatic customs and economy. The middle colonies, on the other hand, were made up of people of many different origins, races, and creeds, and their interrelationships are definitely more symbolic of American culture. Like most people's idea of America, the middle colonies developed a commercial culture ba! sed on a balanced economy, and, besides that, showed no real homogenous cultural traits that ran through the region. Indeed, most of the different groups that coexisted in...
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Too Rich, Too Poor In a list of 150 countries classified by the he Gini index—an indicator used internationally to measure income distribution—Brazil appears as number 148 in a list of 150 countries. And the country is losing its battle to reduce this blatant inequality. Rodolfo Espinoza A personal jet costs a minimum of $9 million. You need to be more than just a little rich to join the club of those who own one. While the number one fleet of these jets is in the United States and the number two is in Mexico, Brazil in a close third place. A Brazilian worker who makes minimum wage ($84 a month) would need to work 8,928 years saving every penny before being able to get his own private plane. And if things continue getting worse, as in recent years, such a worker will have to work a few centuries more and not less to get his impossible jet. The latest numbers by IPEA (Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada—Institute of Applied Economic Research), an organ of the Planning Ministry, show that contrary to what the official discourse says the situation of the Brazilian poor has become grimmer since the introduction of the Plano Real—a federal program introduced on July 1, 1994—designed to strengthen Brazilian currency and eliminate a decades-old endemic inflation. Times were better during the mid-nineties and until October 1997 when Brazil was affected by the economic crises in Russia and Asia. The President had an approval rate of 60 percent and per capita home income was growing 5.4 percent a year. In 1997 the percentage of Brazilians below the poverty line had fallen from 33.4 percent to 25.5 percent. But then the world crisis came and on January 13, 1999, the real, the Brazilian currency, was devalued and unemployment started to increase. A just-released IPEA study...
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An appreciation of "To Autumn" by John Keats "To Autumn", a vivid and sensuous description of the scenery John Keats encountered and marvelled at in the midst of his Sunday constitutional is something to be marvelled at itself. Not only is his choice of language effective in conveying this idyllic image to the reader, but its tone is incredibly optimistic. This might strike some as strange, considering this poem was penned by a terminally ill author. The poem's nature is diametrically opposed to the temperament and disposition one would expect of a person aware of his impending demise. The first verse seems to be concentrated on the beginning of autumn, conveying images of an organic and sunny nature. The main theme seems to be centred around maturity and ripening, as lines such as "Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun", "And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core" and "With a sweet kernel; to set budding more and still more, later flowers for the bees" indicate. The verse follows a classic A, B, A, B, C, D, E, D, C, C, E rhythmic pattern. The descriptions seem to burst out of the page, setting off explosions of gold, green, scarlet and yellow imagery within my mind. He also mentions autumn's over spilling into summer as a conclusion to the stanza. The second verse begins cleverly with a rhetorical enquiry and then proceeds to use extended personification. It appears that he amasses all of autumn's characteristics and embodies them within a physical manifestation, or perhaps a female spectre. This could be a nod to Greek or Roman mythology, referring to Carpo (the Goddess of Autumn) of the Horae, or perhaps the goddess Persephone. He makes almost an antithesis of this creature's movement, referring to her as "careless" whilst sleeping and then, later on "steady"...
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