Many began their normal routine, as a flash brighter than a thousand suns illuminated the sky. At eight fifteen on August 6th, an American bird flew thousands of feet above the land, planting an egg which would affect the world's history forever. The wind changed directions several times, as the intensity of the explosion increased; leaving everything that lay in its way, crushed and burned by the deadly radiation which lingered through the stagnant air. Heat rays reached thousands of degrees, as the land was transformed to a pile of rubble in a matter of minutes. America repeated their methods of mass destruction three days later, plowing through yet another city. Not until years later did the scope of these events come to light. Months before America executed their attack on Japan there was a meeting between the Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, and President Truman. Their discussions on April 25th, 1945 dealt more with the long-range political meaning, rather than the actual military use of the bomb. This was the first time President Truman had been told of the atomic bomb, for it had been kept a secret up until this point. Stimson reported to the President that within four months they would in all probability have completed the worst weapon ever known in human history, a bomb which would destroy a whole city within minutes. He proceeded to explain how they shared the development with the United Kingdom, but controlled the resources at that time, and no other nation would be able to reach their position for several years. Nevertheless it would be impossible to hold that position forever, for many scientists in various countries knew pieces of the discovery and process needed to create the bomb, but they did not retain enough of the full process to...
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The author, John Adams, was an American politician, writer and lawyer. He was sent to Europe (Holland), in 1775 approximately, on a diplomatic mission to reassure the relationship between America and Europe, and it was then he wrote the letter concerning this essay. He was known as a patriot and he fought passionately to make English become an important and popular language in all parts of the world. He became the United States' vice-president in 1795 and later he became president. Being a patriot by nature, John Adams wanted more than anything to form an Academy that could refine and improve the language spoken by the citizens of America. According to John Adams, having a society with an advanced linguistic knowledge is essential for Americas' cultural growth and prosperity. The form of government influences the language and the language influence the form of government, as John Adams puts it. Meaning that an educated and cultivated society can put together a more functional government, and a more functional government can better the society with greater skill, which all in all is the ultimate goal. Americans' influence on the global trademarked depended strongly on the national linguistic advancement. And educational improvements were therefore, as John Adams saw it, most necessary. He had been in Europe for some time before writing this letter, so he knew of the academies that was build in France, Spain and Italy. He was struck by the amount of success these countries were harvesting because of having the proper public educational facilities. He nevertheless believed that English could be a stronger language, regarding international trading and linguistic popularity than French, once an academy was raised. As an argument John Adams mentions the superiority of Athens and Rome, and the relationship between the subject of "eloquence and language" and the "superiority...
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Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand's assassination sparked a chain of events that resulted in Britain declaring war on Germany, and the world erupting in World War One. This however, does not mean that war would not have happened without the assassination. The beginning of the twentieth century was a card house of peace built in a wind tunnel, one small breeze such as Gavrilo Princip was the cause in this scenario, but in any other it could have been a million other possible winds that would send this figurative card house to the ground. Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm the second was a whirlwind ready to do anything to beat Britain's Navy or gain ground in France. Europe's elements all Imperialist and driving themselves to have the greatest armies and technologies. A contorted alliance system would cause any of these possibly small currents to become storm fronts to the peace of the world. Kaiser Wilhelm was a man with many ambitions, he desired a navy that could outdo Britain's, he disliked his family in other European countries and he had an Imperialist outlook on the world. Britain like Germany felt that they should have the greatest power on the seas, they along with all of the other nations in Europe wanted to expand to collect more resources, land and power. A sticky string of alliances joined the European nations together in a web that would force all of the countries to a bloody melee with one single military affair declared. War was an inevitable happening for the world of the early twentieth century. Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm had issues with other nations that would unavoidably cause conflict, European countries wanted a war just as much for its nationalist reasons, and all of this would undoubtedly pull all the other powers in the area into war from the web...
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In 1916 Prime Minister Hughes proposed raising the numbers needed to maintain Australian troops at full strength at the Front by conscripting those who to date were unwilling or opposed to enlisting to fight. The government already had the power under the existing provisions of the Defence Act to conscript men - but only for service in Australia. They could not be sent overseas to fight. All the government needed to do was to change the Defense Act to extend the existing power of conscription for home service, to overseas service. All it had to do to achieve that change in legislation was to pass an amendment through both houses of parliament - the Senate, and the House of Representatives. There was a problem, however. Some members of the Labour Government were against conscription. Hughes knew that he had enough supporters of conscription among the Labour and Liberal parties to have a majority in the House of Representatives; but he was a few short of a majority in the Senate. To overcome this problem Hughes decided to hold a national vote on the issue. This vote is sometimes called a referendum, and sometimes called a plebiscite. Strictly speaking a referendum is a vote to change the Constitution. There was no need to change the Constitution in this case, as the Constitution already gave the government power to introduce conscription. So the vote was in effect a national 'public opinion poll' on the issue. The vote would not mean anything officially - but what Hughes planned was that he would be able to use the public vote in favour of conscription to persuade a few Senators to change their vote in parliament. Even though the Senators were personally against it, the vote would show that the people they represented in fact wanted conscription, so the...
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The Northern and Middle colonies were endlessly different in custom, religion, and values even though some of the same forces helped shape both of them. Religion deeply affected the colonies profoundly, however while it drew the New England colonies toward puritan values, it led the Middle Atlantic colonies more towards general religious toleration. Both sections of America had vaguely democratic thoughts but were not particularly democratic in policy. The economies of both areas were closely tied to religion. The social scene in the North and Middle Atlantic was church for most people with little else. Both regions had colonies with Governors who were appointed by the king, especially in the early years, but they eventually elected their own governors in a really rough version of democracy The Middle Colonies tended to be more liberal than their northern counterparts due to the large numbers of religiously persecuted men and women who came there when they were not wanted elsewhere. This led to a more religiously tolerant government than England had at this time. The New England Puritan church system was directly responsible for the town meeting sort of democracy. This was not actual equality however since only the landowning churchgoing white men could participate in the government. Religion affected the early American economy deeply. In the Middle Atlantic Colonies where having one super dominant religion was less common, religious issues played a smaller part in shaping the economy. The economy of the Middle Atlantic Colonies was all about grain and a bit of tobacco. Small farms were prevalent and skilled craftspeople were scarce. Most all of the colonists worked hard and prospered in the new world. Puritans used the Bible as an excuse to persecute the Indians and take their land. They said they were wasting the land by not farming it aggressively...
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Historical influences against women have shaped the role of women in most societies today. Biblical writings that influenced Christianity, Judaism, and other religions, blame women for destroying the innocence of mankind, symbolic by Eve's eating the Fruit of Wisdom. Ancient Greek beliefs suggested that mans' strength gave the man the right to rule, thus men were the only ones capable of becoming "guardians" and protector of state, which ultimately gave them political rights. These early writings, which were written mostly by men, helped influence other writers responsible for shaping a countries' ideology about male dominance and a women's role in society as housewives and child bearer and thus women were given less opportunities in education for their primary role as housewives didn't require much knowledge. The national political arena is dominated by men but allows women some select access; the international political arena is a sphere for men only, or for those rare women who can successfully play at being men, or at least not shake masculine presumptions (Enloe 13). In a Cold war interpretation: a patriarchal world is dangerous when masculine men and feminine women are expected to react in opposite but complementary ways. A real man will become the protector in such a world. He will suppress his own fears, brace himself and step forward to defend the weak, women and children. In the same dangerous world, women will turn gratefully and expectantly to their fathers and husbands, real or surrogate (Enloe 13). In conventional commentaries men who yield influence in international politics are analyzed in terms of their national identities, their class origins and their paid work (Enloe 13). Rarely are they analyzed as men who have been taught how to be manly, how to size up the trustworthiness or competence of other men in terms of...
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ABSTRACT Environmental impact is clearly evident in Australia. By using the concept of an ecosystem, the term environment is defined as being composed of six interconnected areas. Although Aboriginals modified their landscape, particularly through their use of fire, the impacts they made did not substantially damage the environment. In contrast, the white settlers quite deliberately set out to tame, civilze, and exploit the land. The native flora was affected by clearing, grazing, and introduction of foreign plants. Likewise, the fauna has had serious competition from introduced animals. Over half of Australia's wetlands have been destroyed in various ways, and our seas also fail to escape human impact. The land itself suffers from erosion, salinity, and desertification, as well as considerable change in the terrain. Industrial centres and the nation's cars affect the atmosphere. Each of these issues are closely inter-related. The seriousness of the impacts of 207 years of white settlement make it clear that the supporting ideologies are no longer sustainable. INTRODUCTION "In the last one hundred years man has reshaped the earth more than he did in all the preceding generations, and today he changes land, sea and sky more rapidly and radically than he ever did in the past. The sheer scale of our present impact on the environment confronts us ..."1 Indeed it does! And here in Australia no less than elsewhere. In fact David Attenborough estimates that eighty percent of Australia has been damaged since white settlement.2 What have been the actions and ideologies behind the environmental impacts? What have the impacts been? Can the Australian environment continue to sustain the impacts? In answering the first question Aboriginal and white environmental ideologies are discussed; to illustrate the different land management approaches; to provide a baseline for the state of the environment before settlement; and to understand why the settlers interacted...
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A literary and philosophical movement called transcendentalism developed in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. This movement is a reaction to certain eighteenth century rationalist doctrines and involves the rejection of strict Puritan religious attitudes. (Parrington 375). Transcendentalism is strongly influenced by Deism and opposes the strict ritualistic and dogmatic theology of all established religious institutions. (Parrington 375). Transcendentalist's of this period are opposed to weakening Calvinistic views regarding the corruption of human nature. (Parrington 375). Transcendentalism is described as a natural religion of democracy because it claims that divinity is in every human and therefore the universe. This suggestion that the individual is potentially divine can also support the religion of aristocracy. (Buell 168). The major influences are romanticism, idealism, self-examination, democratic individualism, nature, and mankind among others. (Parrington 375). Buell describes writings of this time as having "a semi-religious focus toward nature and a direct link with the universe, individual, and self." (Buell 267). The American writer Henry David Thoreau is considered to be the most representative writer of Transcendental thought. He writes philosophical essays in which he describes nature and individualism and writes of civil disobedience in literature for the very first time. (Eulau 119). Thoreau's essay, also called "Resistance to Civil Government" is considered to be one the most famous political essays representing Transcendentalism of the era. (Vivas 317). This essay is published anonymously, but major writers of this period recognize him as the author. (Hyman 24). There are over twenty five tenets of American Transcendentalism, however there are basic principles universally held by all transcendentalists. (Ruben 2). Thoreau writes about some of these elements in "Civil Disobedience". The first holds the individual as the spiritual center of the universe who ultimately holds the key to the cosmos itself. (Ruben 2). Every individual...
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Václav Havel: A Character Shaped by the Iron Curtain Throughout Eastern Europe and the world history and politics have infiltrated the lives of many individuals, especially writers. The influence which history and politics has on writers is usually reflected in their literary works. One example of a writer whose works reflect the influence which history and politics had upon him is Václav Havel, the former president of Czechoslovakia (1989-1992) and the Czech Republic (1993-2003). In the following essay I will illustrate how Havel's life and literary works have been influence by the history and politics of his country, Czechoslovakia. Biography Václav Havel was born on October 5, 1936 in Prague, Czechoslovakia to a family to which owned a successful restaurant business. Unfortunately, in 1948 Havel's family's successful business was harshly affected by the Communist domination of Eastern Europe. Because of their successful business and acquired wealth, Havel's family was viewed by the state as being class enemies. As a result, the state confiscated the family's wealth and assigned them to low paying employment positions. In addition, the children of the family were denied access to the state educational system beyond the elementary level. Despite this, Havel was able to take night classes in order to finish high school and later spent two years at a technical university studying economics. In 1959, Havel found employment as a stagehand at Prague's ABC Theater after being denied admission to the university drama school in Prague. During his employment at the ABC Theater, Havel actively pursued playwriting and later became involved in the reforms of 1968 (Prague Spring). During this period of attempted reforms, Czech intellectuals began to push for a liberal restructuring of the Czech Communist system and a break away from the Soviet form of Communism. A Soviet invasion suppressed the Prague Spring and because of...
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