1 Political Socialization at EssayPedia.com
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The political socialization of individuals influences their political culture, which in turn affect their political behavior. Political participation is one aspect of political behavior that is of great importance to politicians because of its potential impact on overall voter turnout, societal satisfaction and ultimately the win or loss of an election. For centuries, citizens of democratic societies have participated in the political affairs of their country. This participation has in more recent years however varied from conventional to more unconventional methods. Political socialization as defined by Dr. Trevor Munroe is "the ways and means through which our views about politics, and our values in relation to politics are formed." Although not consciously obvious, there are agents that are identified as actively involved during political socialization. The primary agents, the family and peer groups, are characterized by their direct influence and unstructured or informal nature. The family is considered primary because at this level, individuals are first exposed to and taught the basic norms, values and ideas that are similar to their parents/guardians. During political discussions at home, the political identity of parents would possibly be transferred from the adults to the children. Peer groups are also thought to be primary despite not being the first agent to create an impression. Children form alliances from an early age and information is exchanged constantly. Evidence of the power of peer groups are apparent within many societies and may arguably be a direct result of economic constrains or the growth of idealisms such as feminism that have changed the roles of women. Where the family falls short, peer groups pick up the slack. The secondary agents of political socialization are very structured and formal. Examples of these are the mass media, the educational system, political parties and religious institutions. These agents indirectly impact the...
pages: 7 (words: 1878)
comments: 0
added: 01/27/2013
Introduction Throughout our nation's vast political history, there have emerged many candidates for political office that one would consider extreme. These "extreme" candidates influence the perceptions of the constituency, which in turn influences voter turnout. There have been such infamous names as David Duke, George Wallace, , and Elaine Brown, who have provoked large public uproars over their political beliefs such responses translated into increased voter turnout to keep these candidates out of office, or in some cases, to elect them to office. However, the definition of an extreme candidate is based on one person's values, and how he or she sees the particular candidate. For this reason, an extreme political candidate will be defined as a candidate who has at least one platform idea, a personality or appearance that goes against the values of a relatively large sector of constituents. Why is it important to look at how extremist candidates influence voter turnout? One reason is voter turnout has been declining since the beginning of the century. One would have thought that after the passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, increased efforts at voter registration, and the abolishment of the poll tax and literacy tests, that voter turnout would most certainly go up. However, more and more Americans do not attempt to vote, and have no interest in our government. In an article in The American Prospect, it was stated that the NES found that the percentage of Americans who "believe that they don't have a say in what the government does" has risen from 31 percent in 1952 to 53 percent in 1996 (Sifry 2000). Are Americans really that apathetic to our government? I believe not. To understand that Americans really do care about our government, one must look at how "extremist" political candidates in national, state and...
pages: 16 (words: 4235)
comments: 1
added: 12/23/2011
The advancement of women in sports can be attributed to new opportunities, the global rights movement, an expanding health and fitness movement, increased media coverage and most importantly government and equal rights legislation. The United States of America was built, ideologically speaking, as an escape from a regimented way of life. It was based, in theory, on freedom of expression. However, it was built by white men, for white men. Every major institution was created through a new constitution; a set of laws that would allow men the freedoms they were not capable of attaining in their homeland. Not once were women taken into consideration; at that time it was absurd to even think of allowing women these very same freedoms. Since the beginning, the very socialization of women was against them living their lives as free individuals. Hundreds of years later, much has changed for women. Perhaps one of the most dramatic shifts has taken place in the world of female athletics where, to a certain degree, the establishment of professional athletics for women is now a reality. This is due, in large part, to the introduction of the Educational Amendments of 1972. Title IX, which came from these amendments, states that: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Although athletics are not the specific target for Title IX, they have become a focal point due to the fact that it governs colleges, elementary schools, and high schools. As mentioned above, the patriarchal system in which we live has led to the political socialization of women as inferior to men. Two examples of this are that our constitution refers to a...
pages: 6 (words: 1606)
comments: 0
added: 12/23/2011
Mexican history boasts of long and advanced civilizations that make most European civilizations seem primitive. The first inhabitants were said to have arrived at about 2000B.C. With the Mayan Empire being constructed in about the 12th century. However within the last two centuries Mexico has had relatively little success, consistent victims of imperialist powers the culture has suffered a great deal. The largest blow occurring when America annexed California by force. This last act of aggression would affect the Mexican economy and social structure for years, if not forever. The population of Mexico has been increasing at a rate of 1.5% to 101, 879,171 as of July 2001. Of this number 33% are between the ages of 0-14, 62% are between 15- 64, and the rest are over 65. The average life expectancy is 71 years. The current birth rate is 22.7 births per 1000 people, while the death rate is 5 deaths per 1000 people. The infant mortality rate is 25.36 deaths per 1000 births. Most women have 2.5 kids during their life. The Mexican population is for the most part homogenous with 60% being Meztizo, 30% Indian, 9% white, and 1 percent other. This lack of diversity and multiculturalism makes political socialization easier because there are not many factions to rebel against the majority. In addition to the homogenous ethnic make up, there are also not a myriad of religions with 89% of the country adhering to Catholicism. Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 2000. This happened during the Zedillo administration when they privatized and expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution,...
pages: 7 (words: 1712)
comments: 1
added: 11/30/2011
The best example of terrorism in the present day was the attack on the Americans on September 11th when the world trade center was destroyed. It certainly caught the attention of the world and succeeded in its goal. Terrorism is defined as using terror-inspiring methods of governing: is this a productive political strategy? Terrorists usually campaign for their political view to be enforced. By drastic, extreme methods, such as the September 11th attack, terrorists are able to inspire fear and make their views known in effective ways. USA civilians mourned the loss of life on September 11th but they also mourned over their loss of faith in the system that protects them from any attack. This fear was created by terrorism. Action taken by terrorists is made more significant by the inevitable publicity terrorists crave. Gaining the public eye allows terrorists to emphasize the political point they are campaigning about well, which is exactly the desired effect of terrorist attacks. It is evident that terrorism is a successful means of displaying a message because US President George Bush made clear the motive of the suicide bombers on September 11th. He advertised their cause for them. A “war on terrorism” is almost impossible as terrorism is what might be called an abstract concept. Terrorism cannot be demolished through plain hand-to-hand combat, as the USA discovered in the Vietnam War against the communist guerrillas. Terrorism can only be abolished by the causes of terrorism being abolished, making the world a place free of grievances, which is almost impossible to achieve. Certain terrorist movements can be combated by intelligence agencies. However, terrorist operations ensure that their plans will not be known by many people, so it is extremely difficult for the intelligence agencies to find out what they are doing. This method of terrorist organisation is...
pages: 2 (words: 408)
comments: 2
added: 04/29/2011
Political, Economic & Social effects of Accounting Standard Setters 'The view that accounting standard setters consider the economic, political and social consequences of accounting standards is consistent with the view that accounting reports, if compiled in accordance with accounting standards and other generally accepted principles, will be neutral and objective' SYNOPSIS Objectivity and neutrality are the ultimate goals of general purpose financial reporting. However there are many factors involved that make this goal almost impossible to attain. Economic, political and social issues are huge influences on the Accounting Standard setting process, and these influences spill over into everyday accounting, with personal gain often ahead of reliability and objectivity. Users of financial reports have demands that need to be satisfied, and regulatory boards involved in Standard setting have done their best to ensure that information is clear and reliable. Considering these factors, Accounting does not exist in a vacuum, Accountants are human beings, not robots and the profession has strict guidelines and heavy penalties for unprofessional or fraudulent activity. It is thus clear that every attempt is made to acknowledge the operating societal factors, gauge the impact they have on different industries at different times and move from that point. The result than, has to be, the best attempt at a neutral and objective report by the professional accountant. Economic, political and social issues are powerful driving forces within any society. These issues therefore need to be focused on when major decisions in industries, are being made. One industry that heavily relies on, and incorporates economic, political and social issues in its' decision-making, is that of Accounting. The Accounting profession is made up of many standards and regulatory boards that govern the way in which entities maintain their general-purpose financial reports. Accounting standards set minimum benchmarks of the quality required in financial reporting. They specify that...
pages: 9 (words: 2267)
comments: 2
added: 11/13/2011
Sex & Violence in the MediaIn today's day of age many parents, political leaders, and authority figures use the argument of Sex & Violence in entertainment as an excuse for their irresponsibility and delinquency in rising today's youth. In today's day of age many parents, political leaders, and authority figures use the argument of Sex & Violence in entertainment as an excuse for their irresponsibility and delinquency in rising today's youth. This idea of the entertainment industry infecting the youth with immoral, wrong, and criminal ideas has been an issue for quite some time now. Many believe that artists and idol influences should maintain a proper educate in their art. Others believe that a common structure or reality should be enforced by the children's parental figures having the youth understand that entertainment is merely entertainment. In my paper I will explain, show, and argue the matter at hand from both sides of the spectrum! Giving examples and real life documented incidents. Adding commentaries from professionals within the industry and parents along with other conservationists. I hope to add examples from artists such as Eminem, Marylin Manson, Korn, Blink 182, and movies such as Basketball Diaries, Juice, New Jack City, and many more. In conjunction with for and opposing arguments I hope to get quotes and interviews with government figures on the matter. I will review all material thoroughly making sure I quote and state accurate information that is very vital to the ideas expressed by both sides. Material used in my bibliography will include movies, music, newspaper articles, books, judicial cases, and many more. Internet sites will also be utilized through College of Dupage's library. I hope to collaborate all these ideas and materials so construct a very enlightening and interesting paper....
pages: 2 (words: 292)
comments: 2
added: 07/13/2011
Suicide bombing is the crack cocaine of warfare. It does not just inflict death and terror on its victims, it intoxicates the people who sponsor it. It unleashes the deepest and most addictive human passions__the thirst for revenge, the desire for religious purity, the longing for earthly glory and eternal salvation. Suicide bombing is not just a tactic in a larger war: it overwhelms the political goals it is meant to serve. It creates its own logic and transforms the culture of those who employ it. Who is not familiar with the term Suicide Bombing, a bomb attack on people or property, delivered by a person who knows the explosion will cause his own death. The Arab press generally refers to a suicide bomber as a "Human Bomb". The Bush administration briefly tried to get journalists to use the term "Homicide Bombing" but it did not gain currency. Suicide bombing usually but not always targets poorly-guarded nonmilitary facilities and personnel. It can be a military tactic, a political one or a mixture of the two. It may qualify as terrorism where the intention is to kill, main or terrorise a predominantly civilian target population, or fall within the definition of an act of war where it is committed against a military target under war conditions. As a political tactic, suicide bombings send a message of impassioned opposition to enemy forces i.e, that the bomber is willing to die for his cause and a message of desperate recklessness to third parties i.e, that the bomber feels the justice of the cause so strongly that he would rather die than submit and that he is giving little thought to the danger. When used against civilian targets, suicide bombing often causes fear in the target population greater than that caused by other forms of terrorism, as the...
pages: 7 (words: 1766)
comments: 1
added: 11/08/2011
A critical political economy can be defined as a theory that identifies a socially critical approach that focuses primarily on the relation between the economic structure and dynamics of media industries and the ideological content of media (McQuail, 2000, p. 82). McQuail (2000, p. 82) adds that it directs attention to the empirical of the structure of ownership and control of media and the way media market forces operate. The argument that political economy is concerned with the macro-questions of media ownership and control is further supported by Boyd-Barrett and Newbold (1995, p. 186), who state that Vincent Mosco defines political economy as 'the study of social relations, particularly power relations, that mutually constitute the production, distribution and consumption of resources including communication resources, but in its more ambitious form, it is the study of control and survival of social life'. Golding and Murdock (1991, p. 18) defines critical political economy along the same line, stating that while mainstream economics sees the 'economy' as a separate and specialised domain, critical political economy is interested in the interplay between economic organisation and political, social and cultural life. News Industries Ownership From the definitions above, political economy can be summarized as the study of natural laws governing the production and the distribution of wealth in order to create an apt social equilibrium. In short, it can be considered that a political economy approach is mainly for the greater good of the people, or as derived to be so by the powers that be. It explores questions of who owns and who controls the institution of economy, society and culture. In other words, whilst media analysis would study the media text itself in order to determine its content and/or possible meanings, a political economy approach to studying the media would be more interested in looking how economic...
pages: 8 (words: 2069)
comments: 1
added: 02/06/2012
This essay introduces an approach to studying media, which deals with the interplay of economic, political, social and cultural life. The political economy approach we are outlining here is clearly critical and its focus will mainly comprise of the fundamental political and economic aspects of media in the news and current affairs sector. The historical development of current structures of ownership and production practices will also be exemplified in this essay, confining the main emphasis on four historical processes. A detailed argument of the advantages and disadvantages of analysing media with a critical political economy approach will also be discussed in this essay. Definitions of terms and several substantiating examples will be included to support the arguments mentioned. Golding and Murdock (1991) in their article draw several terms and concepts used in 'critical political economy'. The detailed definition and explanation of the term points out that social relations and the exercise of power play an impacting role in shifting cultural perspective in society - observing how the making and taking of meaning in productions are shaped at every level of social relations. Analysing the nature and source of regulation limits in media is also an essential point to study the way meaning is made and re-made through the concrete activities of producers and consumers. As highlighted by Golding and Murdock (1991), four historical processes mentioned are especially central to the critical political economy of culture - the growth of media, the extension of corporate reach, commodification and the changing role of state and government intervention. These processes will subsequently lead us to expand into the advantages and disadvantages of the critical political economy approach. The growth of media as explained by Golding and Murdock speaks of how society views the media industries as the logical place to begin an analysis of contemporary culture...
pages: 7 (words: 1896)
comments: 3
added: 11/18/2011
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