As time goes by in music, style changes. Most societies are constantly learning to better themselves (with the acception of some cultures which purposefully stay at an ecomical plateau for the purpose of maintaining tradition and religion). Everyone would agree that music has changed since, say, the 19th century although not everyone would agree that that change is for the better. But with all these views and opinions aside, music is constantly in a state of change. I’m going to look at what causes these changes and specifically look at the evolution of the swing era. New Orleans, in the state of Louisiana, has been reknown for its contribution to Jazz. Many great Jazz musicians have been there in the past – Louis Armstrong, Freddie Keppard and Bill Johnson to name a few. It had a diverse cultural legacy of which music played a big part. Europeans brought over a lot of classical musicians as it was founded as a French Colony in 1718. It became part of America in 1803 during the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810, it was named the fifth largest U.S. city. 1861 marked the end of the American Civil War and in 1865, slavery was abolished against the will of the Con-federacy (Southern States). But during the war, the Union (Northern States) managed to take New Orleans and so black people therefore enjoyed freedom and had a headstart in the abolition of slavery. So New Orleans became a city where black people were free and the feeling was unique to the southern states. During the post-war reconstruction, troops were brought in. They brought their instruments with them and played military music during their work. When they left, they discarded their instruments on the streets for poor people, especially black people, to pick up and use. Out of this...
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Popular music is music that is enjoyed by the largest possible audience. It includes country music, folk music, rhythm and blues, jazz and rock'n'roll. Many things happened in the 1920's. First of all, radio was beginning to gain much power. Most of the songs of the 1920's were considered proper. There were also the conventional songs with ballads and old-fashioned waltzes. Overall, in that time where good songs and lyrics in popular music with much emphasis on the musical stage. Jazz had much musical freedom. It represented the way many people were feeling. Not everyone was smoking and drinking too much though. Many people still continued to lead highly respectable lives. The young people of the twenties were not experiencing the same kind of grief as the slightly older people. During this time big groups of jazz musicians started to play together. It was during the swing era and was known as the Big Band era. The songs were very optimistic and could bring up the mood of the listeners, who, at this time were very depressed. Swing music had a very loose feeling sound. It became more popular with the popularity of the radio. The great depression started in the 1930's. Because of this not many people could afford to buy records. But something new emerged out of the darkness. It was the radio. People could listen all they wanted, for free. People began to stop listening to the records and depended on their trusty radio. And not only could they tune into their favorite songs, but also hear the news and other forms of entertainment. During the thirties many people immigrated to the United States. With them they brought the music from their country. This had great influence on American music. Some immigrant composers taught music or performed in...
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Popular culture or Pop-culture is the outcome and method of mass marketing on the World's youth. It is a powerful "money making" scheme generated by the Media and doubles as a systematic approach to Globalisation. It's span of influence and control reaches into our cities, streets, cars and homes. It affects our very style of living, it controls our culture. Popular Culture derives from Youth culture or "University Culture" born in the late sixties by the "Baby Boomers" Generation. At that time the World bore witness to a global economic boom and Australia was no exception. The citizens of that time were provided with great access to higher education at no charge, something previous generations were never granted. Previously, only the elite could study at university and this change meant that anyone could study at a University level regardless of their financial situation. The Era surrounding the birth of "University Culture" also rendered events such as The Cold War, accompanied by the implementation of Nuclear power, The Vietnam War and the Vietnam Moratorium, a global oil crisis and acid rain. The University culturists took another "radical" step to implement what was called "Participant Democracy", also known as "Grassroots" democracy. It was the method by which people were able to have more say in political decision making and political agendas than simply filling out a Ballot paper. In essence, participant democracy involves mainly protest movements. The students or those living in "Youth Culture" were primarily concerned with global environmental issues. This also included protest movements on the relationships between industry (especially energy industries) and political powers. With rock music's birth co-inciding with birth of university culture, many musicians participated in protest and equal rights movements. This was the birth of Popular Culture. If a musician produced a composition which portrayed "popular issues", like opposition to...
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Plato once said, "Music gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination…and life to everything." It is important for every student to receive a worthwhile education. We all agree that basic subjects such as mathematics, history, science, and language are very important parts of the curriculum, but most tend to forget about another important part: music education. Music is a very important part of every student's education. According to the Music Educator's Journal, beginning more than 150 years ago, the importance of music in America's schools was emphasized by the efforts of what many call "the Father of Music Education", Lowell Mason. Lowell Mason was certainly one of the most effective advocates for public school music education. Music should not be viewed as just an extracurricular activity. Today, I would like to talk about why music should be considered a very important part of the education curriculum at all of America's schools and why funding is just as important for music programs as it is for sports and other activities. Music should be considered a very important part of the education curriculum program at all of America's schools. Lowell Mason believed that music was a gift from God and that it had to be nourished in education in order to reach the rest of the world. He played a very important part in getting music education recognized as an important part of a child's education throughout the United States. The College Board identifies the arts as one of the six basic academic subject areas students should study in order to succeed in college. Arts education also brings together varied cultural and diverse ethnicity, thereby expanding the walk of every classroom. The great thing about music is that it benefits the students in all of...
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Music of the WorldSocarras started by playing the Cotton Club and in black revues, recording the first flute solos jazz with Clarence Williams, Sidney Bechet's and Louis Armstrong's producer. Once he had built up a reputation, he founded a big band that mixed classical music, Cuban rhythms and jazz. His music was a total novelty at the time, and one contemporary American critic wrote of the savage intensity" of the band's rhythm section. Although Socarras was black, he overcame racial barriers in many clubs that had previously been closed to coloured bands, taking his tropical drums as far afield as Illinois and Nebraska. The Puerto Rican trombonist Juan Tizol also embarked on an American jazz career, joining the Duke Ellington orchestra in the late 1920s. For Ellington he composed the first Latin jazz numbers, Caravan and Perdido. He also introduced his boss to the structure of Cuban music which, unlike jazz which allows its soloists complete freedom of invention, is based on a very precise superposition of rhythms, each of which has its own particular part to play in an acoustic tapestry that is constantly changing. The conga follows one predetermined line, the bongo another. Bass and plano both also make their own contribution to the polyphonic rhythms. Whatever notes they may be playing, Cuban musicians must respect a particular style of phrasing that neophytes (and even experienced jazzmen) often find hard to pick up. Other American bandleaders, among them Chick Webb and Cab Calloway, fell for the charms of the bolero, guaracha and rumba-all three of them Cuban imports. In turn, jazz made its first tentative incursions into Cuba. Duke Ellington went to Havana in 1933, and American-style big bands began to be formed there. But New York in the early 1940s was the real home of the fusion of jazz...
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The Structure and Style of Renaissance Music In the Renaissance period, composers began experimenting with harmony in their work. Imitative polyphony, monophonic solo and polychoral music was the main style in the Renaissance. Imitative polyphony is when all the voices in a piece of music move at the same speed and share the development of the piece in a way that later became known as Fugue. Polychoral music is similar to polyphony but is written for choirs, usually to be sung in church. Monophony is simply a solo piece with one line of music and, naturally, one voice. Medieval and Renaissance styles differ in the way the music is written as well, in the order it’s written. Medieval composers built the music up layer upon layer, whereas Renaissance composers often preferred to write all the parts simultaneously, and blend them together rather than contrast them. There is a lot of emphasis on texture in polyphony music. Specific instruments were chosen because they had a certain texture in their sound and the composer would use that texture to compliment other textures within the piece. Renaissance Instruments The Renaissance saw many new instruments as well as old ones remaining popular. Different composers preferred to write for different instruments predominantly, but the basic availability remained pretty much the same. These are the main instruments that were used in Renaissance music: The Lute The lute is the ancestor of the modern day guitar. It held the highest respect of all instruments during the Renaissance, both as an accompaniment and as a solo instrument. It could be played with a plectrum but the best lutenists used only their fingers, giving a very distinctive, very expressive sound. Although the greatest repertoire for the lute is from England, the finest lutes came from Italy. The delicacy of the sound is reflected in the light...
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The Baroque era extended from late Renaissance and early Classical periods between 1600 and 1750. The origin of the term "baroque" comes from Portuguese and refers to an "irregular shaped pearl". The era of Baroque music was an age of brilliant progress of knowledge. It was also known for the age of the scientific discoveries of Galileo and Newton, and advances in math of Descartes, Newton, and Leibnitz. Baroque time period included production of some of the greatest music of all time. There was three periods in Baroque music. In early Baroque style two ideas prevailed; one is the opposition to counterpoint and the most violent interpretation of the words, realized in the emotional recitative in free rhythm. The harmony was experimental and pre-tonal. Vocal music was in the leading position. In the formation of the Baroque style Italy represented only one limit, which influenced primarily in the development of vocal monody. The other pole was England, which influenced the development of abstract instrumental style that spread all over the Europe. The middle Baroque period brought all the bel-canto style in the cantata and opera, and with it the distinction between aria and recitative. Musical forms began to grow and contrapuntal quality was reinstituted. Chord progression was governed by an undeveloped tonality along with modes that were reduced to major and minor. The last period, which is the late Baroque style, is different by a fully established tonality that helped to regulate chord progressions, dissonance treatment, and the formal structure. The contrapuntal technique culminated in the full combination of tonal harmony. Also the concerto style appeared with emphasis on mechanical rhythm. Vocal music was now dominated by instrumental music. However, the modern revival of Baroque music is limited almost exclusively to works in late Baroque period. The idea of dualism is probably what...
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SYNOPSIS This paper takes a look at innovation drawing from the worldwide music industry. The music industry is currently facing a slump in its sales and dropping revenues worldwide. This paper traces the effects of evolution of disruptive technological innovations like Napster and subsequent technologies. Napster as a community file sharing peer-to-peer application defied the traditional physical music distribution system. The paper attempts to throw light on the subsequent fallouts of the Napster effect, documenting the music industry's dilemma and exploring a possible distribution model for the future. Such a model would anticipate the future changes like a wireless age, accelerating technology and focus on a community-based model. Also an attempt has been made to look at technological innovations as apart from firm-driven innovations. These technological innovations are capable of changing the industry complexion and are essentially freelance in nature. THE CHANGING TECHNOLOGY ENABLED WORLD… The I-Pod, the mp3 technology, mobile music devices… Information, entertainment and communication anytime, anywhere, on the move… Welcome to the wonders of the telecommunications era. The era of technological innovation that spurs business innovation. In the last decade technological advances have changed the way businesses function; the prime mover of the technology being the information technology and the proliferation of the Internet. Consider another scenario. At 56kbps modem speeds all it takes to download the whole new Eminem single takes 20 minutes. And the vintage works and less seen or heard collections like those of John Lennon's Lost Weekend are up on E Bay for auction. Amazon.com has a catalogue of CDs to rival any music showroom and has a regular clientele as well. Fans swap music online and critique it online. In a nutshell like any other industry the worldwide music distributing and publishing industry is in a state of flux. The community that buys this music is moving online....
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Classical music is known as a serious kind of music whereas Contemporary music is known as “popular”, “folk”, or “light” kind of music. Classical music is music, which ‘must be written down, or at least performable away from its original composer.’ and must also ‘maintain its ability to communicate and entertain listeners over decades, and even centuries.’ (David Hurwitz, 2003, Internet resource) Comparing it with Contemporary music, it is found that Contemporary music is often recorded or written down vaguely as long as the major pattern can be recognized. Contemporary music is often played by other musicians where improvisation or rubato occurred most of the time, but Classical music are never improvised. According to Jan Vièar, classical music is also known as: ‘serious music, independent music, composed (as opposed to improvised) music.’ (Prague: Academia, 1981, Music and its terminological system) These are the similarities of the two kinds of music. First of all, similar instruments which can be used for both kinds of music are piano, harpsichord, wood wind, brass, string, guitar, vocal and orchestral. It is found that a composer usually composed his or her masterpiece after experiencing certain memorable moment. There was also music that was composed with dedications to their love ones. I grouped these as personal goals as their objectives. Both Classical and Contemporary music are sometimes composed with objective of personal goals. I found great difference than similarities between Classical and Contemporary music. Classical music is originated somewhere since 1600 and it has gone through a total of 5 periods: The Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic and Contemporary periods whereas earliest records of Contemporary music were found after the existence of Classical music. (Author unknown, Internet article) It is clearly understood that Classical music is categorized by its period. It can also be categorized by the composer’s name...
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Northern Indian classical music is one of the oldest forms of music to exist on this planet. North Indian classical music has such a history that it is said to have been dated back to the Vedas, which are the ancient scripts of the Hindus. It is much more than a form of entertainment; it is a defining element of Indian culture. Northern Indian music is based on sangeet, a combination of three traditional forms, including: vocal music, instrumental music, and dance. Each of these forms has developed into distinctive art forms. There are two main genres within Northern Indian Classical music, dhrupad and khayal. Dhrupad is the older of the two genres, and then there is khayal the contemporary genre, which is more popular presently. Acting as a foundation for both of these genres are two different musical entities, melody and rhythm. Melody in Northern Indian Classical music is primarily the silence of sound and how the artist or performer manipulates the space to create the art form. Melody is also embedded in the system called raga. There is also a rhythmic foundation that is found in tala. The raga system exemplifies musical moods which frame the time of year and day which are then outputted by the musical performer. The raga has many defining characteristics, it has to be based on ascending and descending formations of no less than five notes, the nature of each note must be definitive, the composition must have characterizing parts, the ascending and descending formation must also be definitive, and there must be an order within the notes themselves. The product of this framework allows for an easy realization of the melody within the piece of music. In an actual raga performance there are three main parts, Alap which is the first movement and is...
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