Stanislavski created phrases such as "stage direction", laid the foundations of modern opera and gave instant renown to the works of such talented writers and playwrights. His process of character development, the "Stanislavski Method", was the catalyst for method acting- arguably the most influential acting system on the modern stage and screen. Such renowned schools of acting and directing as the Group Theatre and The Actors Studio are a legacy of Stanislavski's pioneering vision. Body Language is a form of non-verbal expression. There are several different elements of body language each having their own range of interior attitudes and emotions. These elements include: POSTURE- this creates impressions hence the way we sit, stand and move. GESTURE- these simple ways in which we move our hands and feet express general feelings that may be hidden or obvious. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS- our faces express feelings most out of any body part. It's in our eyes and mouth that these feelings are created. The extra ordinary process of empathy is that in which the non-verbal communication sends and receives messages, it involves the ability to understand and feel the emotions being experienced by others. At on stage there was a monologue about an imaginary horse and the rider would pat and kiss the horse, expressing great respect for it. Sometimes we recall feelings that we have experienced previous in our lives at a particular time or event. It's this feeling and emotion which brings emotional memory to life. Emotional memory is needed in cases which the actor has no previous experience. So they imagine how they would feel in this type of situation and trigger back old memories to when they once felt that type of emotion. This skill enhances communication and quick emotion acting. In my monologue I play Laura a lady in her 20's to 30's that is "the...
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In Ken Kesey's One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest can the figure of McMurphy be said to offer realistic alternatives to the conformity of America in the 1950s?English
This essay will show that the character of McMurphy in 'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' (1962) does offer realistic alternatives to the conformity of 1950s America. The essay will achieve this through an examination of the culture of the time, how the author of the novel, Ken Kesey, developed the McMurphy character so as to become a symbol of non-conformity and how through similar developments, the non-conformity of ideals, principals and thoughts became a reality during the 1950s and 1960s of American counter culture. The essay will also demonstrate that although McMurphy can be seen to be ultimate symbol of enforced authoritarian conformity at the end of the novel, the influence of his particular brand of non-conformist ideals continued to be carried forward in those patients who managed to 'free' themselves from the restraints of the institution. Yet the essay will also demonstrate that ultimately the system against which those of the institution are rebelling, continues to survive as the dominant influence in society. At the time during which the novel is set, it is important to understand the social and cultural environment in which a majority of Americans were living, in order to appreciate those social 'norms' against which McMurphy can be seen to be rebelling. America of the 1950s was a nation undergoing significant economic, social and political changes which, following the Depression of the 1930s and the War years of the 1940s, left the country as a whole in a state of paradoxical flux. This can be seen to have been demonstrated in the election of President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, who despite turning his attentions to politics following the Second World War - during which he had been a General and Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces for the Invasion of Europe in 1945 -...
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To what extent do you consider ‘Journey's End' to be a realistic portrayal of the war on the Western FrontEnglish
The 'Journey's End' is surely written to convey to the audience the realities of war. The author Sherriff served as a captain during the First World War. He would no doubt have heard eyewitness testimonies of the events taking place. Perhaps many of the characters and situations in Journey's End are drawn from his own experience. This is one reason why I feel that this script is as real a portrayal of life, as a letter or diary entry. Statistics are always thought to be an accurate portrayal of war. Massive casualties and deaths, such as 908,000 British soldiers killed, tell a tale of pain and tortuous death. This is certainly not ignored in 'Journey's End'. In the few minutes it takes Osborne and Raleigh to conduct their raid, a total of seven men are killed, by machine gun bullets and a hand grenade. Stanhope tells the colonel "four men and Raleigh came safely back, sir." By the end of the play we must assume that many more men are killed. I believe the play accurately portrays the emotional turmoil felt by the soldiers during the time they spent in the front line. The tragic death of Osborne strikes a somber mood throughout the cast. Stanhope saying to Raleigh, after he came back from the raid, "Must you sit on Osborne's bed?" shows his contempt that Raleigh was spared and not Osborne. He also says, "For God's sake forget that bloody raid," Showing his weakness at avoiding a painful subject. Stanhope is so distraught by Osborne's death that he takes it out on Hibbert, accusing him of cowardice. This turns in to a heated argument between Stanhope and Hibbert, in which Hibbert is threatened with a revolver; this is all caused directly by Osborne's death. Raleigh's mind is also in turmoil after...
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“Dramatists may choose to present “realistic” characters, “symbolic” characters or something in between.” Discuss the use of different types of characters and evaluate their effectiveness in at least two plays.English
The effectiveness of characterization allows the projection of the writer's views. Realistic characters have roles that present to the audience a similar lifestyle to their own. The essences of these characters are to create a relationship with the audience based on sympathy and familiar ness. This is a technique that helps express the themes of the play. The characters in Freedom of the City project realistic roles. Michael, Lily and Skinner character features that are commonly found in real people off stage. Through this Friel is able to directly relate his views on society and politics to the world. Symbolic characters share the same effect as realistic. These characters represent issues that relate to and project the themes. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, its main characters represent Stoppard's views on society and existence. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are symbolic of themes that each character portrays through their actions. Another character feature this play has is that it is comprised of symbolic characters as well as realistic. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead the characters of Hamlet are multi-faceted and thus realistic. Stoppard's play consists of contrasting characterization. The main characters of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern play symbolic roles. They have unchanging characters and lack a significant relationship. They also lack memory and knowledge of their own identity. This causes them to give off no personal knowledge of themselves so the audience has a minimum relationship with the characters. Although these are the two main characters and their roles have other major significances. Their symbolic acts portray the main themes. Stoppard suggests that without identity and memory, life is meaningless. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are symbolic of this view as they cannot recall their identities. Ros says, "Which way did we come in? I've lost my sense of direction." They are the same at...
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“How realistic is McCourt's depiction of poverty in Limerick. Discuss this with reference to the settings of Angles Ashes.”English
Frank McCourt has used a variety of settings to realistically depict poverty in Limerick. The settings McCourt has used, such as the climate, poor living conditions in homes and lanes, abundance of vermin and the need to beg at charities, create the perception of the poverty experienced by his family. The poverty indicated by these settings is a lack of basic necessities required for the family's survival. Although McCourt's recall may exaggerate some aspects, his use of settings in the memoir creates a realistic depiction of poverty even if not entirely accurate. The climate of Limerick described by McCourt in the memoir creates a sense of poverty by being the cause of many diseases and keeping the family cold and wet. The river Shannon that runs through Limerick is the main factor blamed for causing this cold, wet climate. Throughout the memoir McCourt includes references to this as is shown in this example taken from Malachy McCourt, "we'll get out of Limerick and far from the Shannon that kills." There are also many diseases in the memoir that the climate is responsible for, including consumption, pneumonia and typhoid, the latter McCourt contracting himself. The climate creates the sense of poverty by indicating the McCourts had no shelter from the climate and lack of clothing and facilities, "There's nothing to do when your clothes are wet but get back into bed where its cosy." This example shows that with only one set of clothes and no sun they had no choice but to wear wet clothing. The affect of the climate is also described in the introduction to the memoir as McCourt talks about the climate and the diseases linked to this, "It created a cacophony of hacking coughs, bronchial rattles, asthmatic wheezes, consumptive croaks." McCourt also mentions that the church was...
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Throughout the years, a prominent difference between and separation of Romanticism and Realism has always existed. The gap between the two with characters and with genres is often clear, and who is Romantic and what is Realistic is plainly defined. In his play, Shaw melds Romanticism and Realism into a given character with the result of touching upon deceiving appearances and a well-written comedy. In Arms and the Man, Shaw's characters give the reader first impressions that contradict aspects of their personality later revealed throughout the course of the play, specifically contrasting between Romantic and Realistic viewpoints; such characters that later contrast their first impressions are Raina, Louka, and Officer Bluntschli. The first character introduced to us in the play is Raina, a rather idealistic young woman. She initially appears to have Romantic ideals, as her seemingly upper class upbringing has allowed only that narrow mind-set. At the inflated news of a victorious cavalry charge for the army her family supports which is later very de-glamorized by Officer Bluntshli, Raina says (paraphrased), "Oh I am so happy! So proud! It proves our patriotism and our heroic ideals are real!" Raina's interjection displays her Romantic ideals influenced by Romantic literature, such as that written by Byron and Pushkin as mentioned by Raina in the play. But as the acts of the play progress, and as she comes in contact with The Man (a.k.a. Officer Bluntschli) who reveals to her more grounded views of the world contrary to her ideas of brave soldiers eager to give their lives to serve their country, Raina adopts a more sullen, realistic mentality. She reacts bitterly to the insensitive regard for death that soldiers have when Louka mentions that Officer Bluntschli has no word of grief for his father's death. She replies, "[bitterly] Grief! A man who...
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Creating living characters is one of the greatest challenges for novelists, often due to the extraordinary situations the characters themselves are placed in. However, Salinger is able to accomplish this feat in his novel Catcher in the Rye by giving the characters flaws, thus making them more human. The characters are also very human, in that they have reasonable reactions that we can understand. Salinger creates the characters with the intent that we can relate to them, allowing us to do just that and at the same time making them seem even more real and understandable to us. This also makes Salinger's main character, Holden, seem a bit unreal, as most readers are unable to relate to some of the dire circumstances he is placed in, but through this, the other characters seem even more real. In all of this, we can truly relate to his characters, thereby making them more realistic. In every novel that seeks to create living characters, the characters have their flaws and traits. As no human being is perfect, we can often relate to these flaws and traits, making the characters in Catcher in the Rye understandable and more realistic. Each character has their own flaw in this novel; Holden has his overreactions and insensible nature (getting hyped up about Stradlater not caring if Jane still kept her kings in the back row, and also leaving his bloody nose alone, instead of cleaning it up a bit); Stradlater losing his cool (striking Holden because he gave into anger); and even Mr Spencer (being boring). These flaws and traits allow us to relate to the characters by us either having them, or knowing people that do. As soon as we can envision somebody like the character in the book, Salinger has accomplished his goal in creating living...
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Design a realistic and effective training program for a client (case study), underpinning the theory and reasoning behind choices made.Sports
Throughout history, there has always been a link made between physical activity/exercise, and health. This link can be traced back to at least the Ayur-Veda in the 9th century BC, where "exercise and massage are recommended for the treatment of rheumatism" (Ryan, A., cited in American Academy of Physical Education, pg 4). Today, however, even though the link is still being documented, the way in which our society lives – with the increased technology, where "the physical demands of everyday activities like cleaning the house, washing the dishes, mowing the lawn and travelling to work" (Heyward, pg 1), that would have taken about an hour at one time, "can now be accomplished in just a few seconds by pushing a button, or setting a dial" (Heyward, pg 1). Instead of the time saved by these improvements being used in a positive way to pursue recreational activities, people are using this time to become increasingly sedentary. Add to this the fact that even though it has been much documented "that appropriate exercise programs may be expected to yield improvements not only in physical fitness, but also in blood lipid levels, blood pressure, body composition, bone density, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance." (Dishman, pg 31), there is still 20-50% of people who withdraw from an exercise program within the first six months (Dishman, 1988; Robison and Rogers, 1994; cited in Bull, pg 3). The client, himself, shows these sorts of qualities in his approach to smoking cessation. The fact that he has tried to stop, but has not yet been successful, shows that he may have adherence issues. However, he does seem intent on making some major lifestyle changes due to the fact that now he has reached middle-age, he is beginning to experience back and knee pains – a sure fire sign of the beginnings...
pages: 7 (words: 1892)