We had sensed for some time that something was wrong – site-based management had not been delivering the goods. We formed leadership teams; they met; we shared decision making – but teaching and learning didn't change. "Perhaps too much had been expected from simply the transfer of power," suggest Priscilla Wohlstetter and Susan Albers Mohrman, who have written an extensive study looking at the outcomes of sharing decision making in schools. The idea always was to improve education for kids; but instead what seemed to have happened in many places was that there was another meeting to attend and nothing much else was new. "Is the theory flawed? Is the current wave of decentralization just another swing of the pendulum?" ask these authors, whose study of practice looked at thirty schools in nine school districts, each of which had at least four years' experience with school-based management. We were asking ourselves the same questions. As principals of alternative high schools in New York City, we each had been deeply involved in school reform for over fifteen years. Each of our schools struggled incessantly with "group management" at Satellite Academy High School and consensus-based decision making at University Heights High School. During this time, our own experiences and observations, combined with those shared in professional development opportunities with colleagues in other New York schools and around the country, helped us learn a number of valuable lessons. AUDIO CLIP Nancy Mohr on "Why we wrote this article" Listen to the audio clip and read a transcript. We saw for ourselves the tremendous power that can be generated within a school when the professional staff genuinely experiences a sense of ownership. But we learned that adult empowerment, for its own sake, is too limited a goal. We found that adult ownership, while necessary, does not in and...
pages: 3 (words: 655)
All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems.Social Issues
"All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems. "In a modern society, there are many complex questions, this passage's suggestion is a good advice, but it is not practical. First, depending the student to solve the world's most persistence social problems is impractical. The student's purpose in a university is to learn some basic knowledge and have some preparation for their future work, and the university's duty is to teach them such knowledge and the basic living ability. we can not say the student do not want to have such research, but they are just lack of such ability. Nevertheless maybe there are some very excellent students or the graduate students can do such research, but it is incommensurate with the spend for building a large global university. Second, the idea that just one large global university can solve all persistent social problem is ridiculous. It is not a easy work to build a university, they need a large square of field, build many teaching buildings and the student's dormitories. And they also need recruit many famous teachers and attract students to study in their school. All these will cost a lot of money, any beneficial research will happen in several years later. It is better to spend this money to establish many social problem research centers in many existed different universities, We can invite many famous scholars from different countries as long as give the best research condition. The result will be better than establish another university, we can save a lot of money too. Third, the government's role is important in solving any persistence social problem. In many countries, we need the government's corporation to treat the social problem. such...
pages: 2 (words: 487)
All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problemsMiscellaneous
Inthe present age the various societies of world despite the manifold advancement in science and technology are being persistently plagued by the serious social problems. The idea of setting up a global university can be a very helpful in solving the serious social problems like Illiteracy ,Poverty and aparthied,sexual abuse,drug addiction.Cooperation amongst various countries is defenitely required to solve these problems.Recent mutual agreement amongst the countries of the world against the terrorism has defenitely improved the condition and reduced the incidence of terrorist attacks.Such mutual cooperation can also be brought about in solving the issues like child labour. But the major drawback in such a setup can be the it can be a good stage for solving the problem common to the countries but certain problems are there which other societies are not even aware of like dowry system in southwestern asia to which most of the western countries are ignorant .Then why would they like to bear the expenditure for solving these problems which are exclusive to particular nations.So estabilishing such a university calls for rasing above the personal greeds of nations and looking at the problems as challenges against humanity. The nature of problems for each nation depends on the cultural history of the society and thus needs to be dealt in the similar context.This university can be an ideal place for cross cultural communication and thus creating awareness and respect for other cultures and hence looking at the positive aspects of other cultures and utilizing their methodology for tackling the problems.With the fast modernisation of the societies and the western culture rapidly replacing the traditional cultural values of developing countries like India.The socialists can be aware of the reprecurssions of the exceesive modernisation in advance and can get ready to deal with the future situation and avaoiding to be taken...
pages: 2 (words: 451)
All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems The term 'global' signifies something substantial for the entire world. The need of a global body is uttermost important to solve social problems. The social problems need not be global for their general world significance, but for the threat they pose. The point of view of the speaker can be agreed with since the persistent social problems have to be solved. We have many social problems such as poverty, population growth, racial discrimination, child labour, prostitution, AIDS, illiteracy etc. These problems have to be controlled. One way of solving these problems as the speaker says is by the development of a global university which can mould the student's mind to help for a general cause. For the global university to prosper, not only the developed nations but also the underdeveloped and developing nations should participate. Proper selection of the students is the most important criteria, since these students symbolize their respective nations. There should be no prejudices among the mind of students. Students should come to this global university with an open heart and desire to learn. Unless the desire is not present, this cannot help the cause. The students from developing nations shouldn't dominate or bully their counterparts from developing nations. There shouldn't be a sense of superiority among the students. There should a proper dialogue among the students so that they come to know the various existing problems. These dialogues may help the students unite towards solving persistent social problems. Population control is one of the most important social problems. Population growth undoubtedly has a definite on social relations and society's historical development. Unfortunately, this issue has been examined insufficiently. When scrutinizing population growth today or...
pages: 3 (words: 605)
Drawing on contemporary geographical examples, critically analyze the extent to which people should care for distant others. David Smith asks the question in his article written in the progress of human geography 'How far should we care?' When this question is first put to anyone they are immediately taken aback. They begin to think who they care for, and how much; where does the caring stop. The first question to ask is what is the meaning of care? '…caring for others as well as caring about them: the focus here is on beneficence as doing good or showing active kindness, rather than on benevolence as merely the desire to do good or charitable feeling' The meaning of 'caring' is defined differently by each individual; it is how we as a person look at things. It is quite clear to me that we would care for our close and loved ones first over others, Marilyn Friedman supports this in her article 'The Practice of partiality' by saying 'Hardly any moral philosopher these days would deny that we are each entitled to favour our loved ones.' This can be down to instinct, whereby like animals we will always look after members of our pack or group above others. Historically caring for others outside your particular gang or tribe would be extremely negative, 'those posing a threat were repulsed.' This action took place very early on in the development of the planet whereby tribes would be competing over land and there was a distinctive lack of communication existing. Communities would work together with everyone helping each other and everyone knowing what the other was doing. This is an excellent example of the early signs of the communitarians, where the focus of the community was not on the individual but as a unit, 'personal identity reinforced...
pages: 7 (words: 1710)
Les Demoiselles d'Avingnon 1907 Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avingnon features five angular female figures posed against a jagged blue curtain. This disconcerting sculptural depiction shocks the viewer through its harsh contours and disjointed subject matter of crowded nudes. The juxtaposition of western and 'primitive' art creates apprehension through the tight rectangular composition of Renaissance-influenced curvaceous women in the centre and primitive distorted masked figures in the outer of the artwork. These crudely painted bodies appear to have been pressed flat onto the picture plane with little representation of space. Picasso has destroyed the concept of depth or shape through the lack of changes in colour, intensity or sharpness seen throughout the artwork. Instead, he has merely used dark outlines to model the figures and fragmented the forms into geometric facets, which allows for a distinction between the objects in the painting. The two central figures of the painting are stretched out with their enlarged eyes turned towards the audience. Picasso has dramatised their facial features and simplified their body shape to create sculpture like figures seemingly carved into the background. The stark expression of these two figures is believed to have been influenced by Iberian sculpture. The position of the woman on the left hand side appears awkward and insecure, forcing the audience to expect her to collapse. This lack of naturalism in terms of proportion and perspective is a direct challenge put forward by Picasso, questioning the audience-artwork assumptions and expectations. These two women are in a frontal position however their noses are in profile, diminishing any sense of linear perspective. The far nude on the left is on profile and hold close resemblance to Archaic Greek female sculpture with her expressionless stare and unnaturally rigid stance. It is clear to the audience that there is a definite disjunction between the left...
pages: 6 (words: 1492)
"The past is what makes the present coherent," said Afro-American writer James Baldwin, and the past "will remain horrible for exactly as long as we refuse to assess it honestly." The African slave trade played an important role in the stabilization of Europe's economy, its transition to capitalism, the development of the nation state, and the establishment of their imperial empires. The opening of the Atlantic led to the development of Europe's commercial empire and industrial revolution. The demand for African slave labor arose from the development of plantation agriculture, the long-term rise in prices and consumption of sugar, and the demand for miners. Not only did Africans represent skilled laborers, but they were also experts in tropical agriculture. Consequently, they were well-suited for the plantation agriculture that was being used in the new world. Africans then became the final solution to the acute labor problem in the New World. HISTORY From the begining, relations between Europe and Africa were economic in nature. Portuguese merchants traded with Africans from trading posts they set up along the coast. They exchanged items like brass and copper bracelets for such products as pepper, cloth, beads and slaves. At the time this was all part of an existing internal African trade market. Domestic slavery was common in Africa and there was trading of humans well before European slave buyers arrived. It started with the capture of black slaves that were bought by Arabs and exported across the Saharan desert to the Mediterranean and Near East. In 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the 'New World' or America's. This find proved disastrous not only for the Native Americans but also for Africans. It marked the beginning of a triangular trade between Africa, Europe and the New World. European slave ships, mainly British and French, began taking people from Africa to the...
pages: 7 (words: 1842)
Australian Report On Progress Towards the Paperless Trading GoalsIn APEC¡¦s Blueprint for Action on Electronic CommerceBusiness
Executive Summary • Australia is actively pursuing the paperless trading goals set out in the APEC Blueprint for Action on E-Commerce through legal reforms, policy coordination measures and a number of practical actions to facilitate electronic systems within specific business sectors. • Australia has established the National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE) as the leading government agency on information economy issues. The Office of Government Online (OGO) is responsible for overseeing the provision of all appropriate government services online. • Australia¡¦s priorities are clearly manifest in the Electronic Transactions Act 1999 which was designed to ensure technology neutrality (i.e. no form of technology or IT business approach should be favoured over another) and media neutrality (i.e paper-based commerce and e-commerce should be treated equally by the law). Australia is aiming for a regulatory environment which encourages innovation and growth and is consistent across Australia and with widely agreed international positions. • Australia recognises that, as major users and customers, governments will be significant catalysts for change, encouraging uptake by signalling their commitment to new technologies and supporting the development of a critical mass of users. The Australian Government is committed to providing all appropriate government services online by 2001 and its E-Procurement Strategy aims to pay all suppliers electronically by the end of 2000, and allow all simple procurement suppliers who wish to deal with the government electronically, using open standards, to do so by the end of 2001. • The Gatekeeper initiative is establishing a world-class Public Key Infrastructure that will ensure that online transactions are verifiable, secure, and confidential. This will improve confidence in, and use of, e-commerce by business, government and the community. • This report sets out a variety of initiatives which we believe represent best practice. Two worthy of special mention are our EXDOC and Business Entry Point systems. • Australia¡¦s...
pages: 32 (words: 8573)
Ukraine is situated in the southeastern part of Central Europe and has its own territory, government, national emblem, flag, and anthem. It borders on Russia, Byelorussia, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary, and Poland on land and Russia, Georgia, Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey on sea. After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. The main Ukrainian River is the Dnieper. It is one of the longest European rivers and one of the republic's main sources of hydroelectric power. The Dnieper and its tributary the Ross had been the cradle of the Ukrainian and Russian people in immeasurable time. Due to favorable climatic conditions, Ukraine is traditionally an agricultural area. It grows wheat, maize, buckwheat and other corn, red and green vegetables, all kinds of fruit, melons and berries. Ukraine is one of the world's main centers of sugar production. It produces sugar both for her own needs and for export. The country is rich in natural resources, such as iron ore, coal, color metal, oil, gas, mineral salts, clay and potential water power. It has developed a varied industry, concentrated mostly in and around big cities. It produces planes and ships, lorries and buses, motorcars and locomotives, computer and electronic equipment, precision instruments and agricultural machines, TV and radio sets, chemicals and textiles and various consumer goods. Under the conditions of radical changes which took place on the world arena in the period from late 80-ies to early 90-ies the people of the newborn Ukrainian state chose their own way of development. Primarily aimed at creation of a...
pages: 5 (words: 1246)
bstract Hybrid Vehicles (HV) provide a glimpse of the future of environmental vehicle design but what is needed to succeed in the marketplace? In this paper, I will analyze the market penetration of HVs in the long and short run. This paper also studies the factors influencing the sales of HVs such as gasoline prices, government subsidies and environmental concerns. The American way of life has developed around the automobile. Personal and public transportation allows people to live in suburban communities and commute to work where the majority of jobs are; the urban centers. However this freedom comes with a high price. Urban air quality problems persist and increase. With increase in motorized travel and congestion comes an increase in energy use, emissions and air pollution. Greene and Santini (1993) stated that "dependency on foreign energy sources decreases the American energy security and adversely affect the balance of trade." Emissions deteriorate environment. And poor environmental conditions together with air pollution cause various health related problems, especially in the respiratory system. All these social and environmental needs have challenged the automobile manufactures to provide sustainable solutions. Hybrid vehicles (HV) offer an opportunity to combine the advantages of electric vehicles such as zero-tailpipe emission mobility in sensitive places like metropolitan areas, with the potential of nearly unlimited long-distance capability using the heat engine as an energy converter. And because HV consume less gasoline than standard internal combustion engines (ICE) vehicles, it makes the need for foreign oil less. The implementation of Hybrid vehicles technology contributes new potential risk from the development of other competing technologies as electric vehicles, natural gas vehicles, improved ICE vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. Factors like abundance of natural gas, clean emissions and efficiency of fuel cell vehicles and the total elimination of tail pipe emissions will greatly impact the sales market...
pages: 3 (words: 621)