How do groups cohere? Historically, strong leadership and a shared culture have been the primary factors in determining collective unanimity within social groups. Managers today might not have absolute power of life or death over their staff, being restricted to hiring and firing in their power to enforce the hierarchy, and their corporate mythology might shade by comparison with that of, say, ancient Rome; yet, although managers today need to unite different people without the traditional binding agents of shared ethnicity or religion, unifying them in pursuit of tasks which can sometimes appear dreary even to the most committed worker, it is becoming abundantly clear that negative motivation – the threat of unemployment – is at best a limited management tool. Although the knowledge that keeping one's job is contingent on performance necessarily informs every worker's consciousness, fear alone breeds hatred, discord and consequently inefficiency. It is a truth almost universally accepted that a happy worker is a good one: aside from such prerequisites as a pleasant working environment and the avoidance of overwork, it seems clear that a good team-spirit is the key to healthy morale. Working as a team increases people's sense of purpose, their feeling of belonging and consequently their productivity. In fact, a properly functioning team is absolutely essential for any business with more than one employee. If the rugby pack doesn't push together, they lose the game. Fortunately, for the twenty-first-century corporate manager, a support-structure, a science and industry of positive motivation, fitted for the contemporary market, has evolved. And one of its principal methods is that delineated in this section. The companies on show here specialize in removing workers from their normative contexts and involving them in challenging, unusual and entertaining activities, by which shared experience the group knits together, eliciting previously untapped interpersonal...
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Point 2. Problem: A major problem in groups is members' viewpoints and discussion items are not heard. The member is not considered part of the group so they don't offer any items of contribution. Solution: To overcome these problems the group needs to look at the following points. 1. All members within the group are on the same playing field. The chairperson is only for conducting the meeting and not the leader for the other members to report too. 2. Don't allow other members to become over bearing on others. 3. Allow every member the opportunity to speak. Problem: The perception of problems might be different for different members. Within new groups you don't know what all the strengths and weaknesses of all the members might be as seen in Tuckman's forming stage Tuckman (1966). Solution: To overcome these problems the group needs to look at the following points. 1. Thru further discussions the problem might be easily solved by another members ability. 2. The group needs to meet socially to find out how the other members operate, think and operate. The earlier we all have the information the easier to coordination, communication and understanding becomes. Problem: A major problem will be overcoming the difficulty of everyone's work commitments. Together with the range of job roles, the production of the assignments could be a problem. There will be work-related travel for most members so the importance on completing aspects of the assignment is paramount. Solution: To overcome these problems the group needs to look at the following points. 1. A very structured timeline will need to be adhered too for the assignments, learning outcomes and more important to achieve high grades. 2. Open communications between members of what their movements might possibly include. Placing these details on the timeline will show everyone the time available for the meeting, analysis and construction of assignments. 3....
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Introduction Competencies are the set of knowledge, skills and behaviour attributes which are required to perform effectively in a particular job position. They are demonstrated capabilities and behavioural manifestations that are known to lead to success more often then not. Competency could also be defined as behaviour (i.e. communication, leadership) rather than a skill or ability. A competency map is an assessment tool that outlines the skills and behaviours required to succeed as a manager and/or leader. Most importantly, it is a vehicle by which sponsors and team members are able to help focus and support a participant's learning process. It identifies key competencies for an organisation and/or a job and incorporates those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organisation. It is the process by which the required competency levels for any specific role or position in the business are defined. Competency mapping, as a concept is relatively new to the Indian organisational environment, but due to the effectiveness of the concept, it is emerging very fast as a regular Human resource management practice. Competency Mapping... Why? The competency mapping process is designed to arrive at attributes (inherent personal traits), and competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities required in a job), unique to the client organisation. Once a competency map is developed and validated, it can be used to recruit and select, manage, evaluate and develop people for the roles arrived at through the organisation design process. It also can be used in compensation management and succession planning. Typically, the process requires specification determination, which results in firming up the attributes and competencies required for each role in the organisation. A preliminary project plan is developed and appropriate activities and communication plans are established to support the development of the maps. Employees are given the opportunity to review the maps to...
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According to the book, Tools for Teams, it states that "not all companies benefit by forming teams but the ones that do, have found that there was an improvement in quality, customer service and all around productivity". There are different types of teams, the manager-led team, self managing or self relating, self-directing or self-designing and self-governing. These teams portray either work teams, task teams or management teams. When you have any of the above teams working together, you have a continuation of learning styles, intelligences and quadrants all combined, something that cannot be accomplished by an individual. Tools for Teams also states that "the team that pays close attention to process evolution and has the courage to push through breakpoints, has the best chance to reach excellence and to endure". But when there is a team that cannot battle through these breakpoints, the team can end in failure. The majority of these breakpoints arise out of conflicts amongst the team members. If these conflicts are not addressed immediately, the team is facing a downhill battle. Conflicts will occur, whether within your work team or in your personal life. The real trick is how you deal with them. There are many factors that must be taken into account. The most important thing in our opinion is to have good leadership at the helm. But not all team leaders live up to the expectations of the role. When it comes down to the nitty-gritty, some team leaders do not know how to handle conflict situations. The following are five possible ways of dealing with conflicts. Some are productive but others are not. Avoidance Accommodation Competition Compromise Collaboration AVOIDANCE - an act or practice of avoiding or withdrawing from something There are two forms of avoidance, one being protecting and the other withdrawing. By protecting, one would do anything possible...
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The team-based organization has caused a change in the way groups are managed. "In fact, nothing has contributed more to the escalation of conflict than the advent of collaborative, team-based work" (Caudron 1998). Management cannot ignore conflict. They must manage it properly in order to gain its benefits. "People should not be talked out of their differences but be given opportunities to dovetail their conceptions into acceptable conclusions of the whole society. We learn by dealing with problems, noting cause and effect, and making judgment. Conflict serves to intensify the process and bringing about more appropriate decisions" (Thomas 1983). In order to foster positive conflict within an organization, management must first recognize that it exists and provide an environment that allows for conflict resolution. "The challenge for organizations is to distinguish normal and healthy differences from destructive conflict and to learn to effectively deal with problem situations before they get out of hand" (Smith 2002). When conflict seems nonexistent, management should realize the employees are conforming to the norm and are not bringing their individual ideas to the table in fear of ramifications because conflict is perceived as a negative within the organization. "When we fail to recognize an existing or potential conflict, not dealing with it effectively, that problem will invariably go underground and may resurface in a variety of ways. Health and productivity problems are common symptoms among employees" (Thomas 1983). "The best way to deal with conflict is to create the kind of culture in which it is acknowledged and supported as a natural part of the business process" (Caudron 2000). The first is to ensure that all teams are launched properly. An initial meeting should be held to establish the goal, team norms, clarification of empowerment levels and a communication plan (Bens 1999). By establishing and documenting team...
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In today's changing work environment, the complexity of the ever-changing workforce has proven to be quite a challenge to many companies. Employees are now empowered with front-line authority to make an array of decisions that can affect the entire company. Modern management practices encourage utilizing the power and creativity of groups and teams of employees to function as cohesive units to accomplish company goals and projects. Within a team, lies increased creativity, the ability to accomplish more than one individual, diversity of knowledge and experiences, and far superior group knowledge to overcome many complex issues. However, there can also be challenges to the team productivity and cooperation. Differences in diversity, personalities and culture can all create conflict within a team. Conflict is neither good or bad suggests Rees (1991), it is what we do with it, which makes the difference. Although conflict is generally viewed in a negative way, and something to avoid, when appropriately managed it can generate beneficial results. Conflict management theorists define conflict as either constructive or destructive conflict. Constructive conflict is functional because it helps members accomplish goals and generate new insights into old problems. Destructive conflict is dysfunctional because it negatively affects team members by disrupting their activity. Conflict becomes a problem when people are unable to manage and resolve it effectively. If conflict is not dealt with constructively, it can be a powerful destructive force between two people and within a team. The results of destructive conflict can usually be seen when team members are arguing, brooding, or fighting. Destructive, or Negative conflict, can be considered destructive if: 1. No decision is reached and the problem still exists; 2. It diverts energy from more valuable activities or issues; 3. It destroys the morale of teams or individual members; 4. It polarizes or divides teams. Just because people are members of the same team does not...
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About BT Name: British Telecommunications Business: Telecommunications, Telephones, Lines for transferring data Customers: The public (Anyone wishing to communicate through a range of media) Location: Nationwide Mission Statement: Our ambition is to be the best provider of communications services and solutions for everybody in the United Kingdom and for corporate customers in the rest of Europe, with global reach through partnerships Social Mission Statement (BT Better World) We aim to be at the heart of the information society - in which everyone irrespective of nationality, culture, ethnicity, class, creed or education has access to the benefits of information and communications. Customer Care Customer care is the care, service and attention that a company shows to their customers. Customer care has become extremely important in BT because they believe over the last decade organisations that rely on a standard of service, which encourages their customers to come back is of the up-most importance. In an extremely competitive marketplace especially now with Internet businesses customers have more than enough choice usually. An excellent degree of customer service may be the only aspect of a company, which differentiates them from a competitor. Customer service involves looking at the organisation from the customer's point of view and most systems and practices in the firm are customer driven. BT now are a customer centric company, which means everything they do in their service is geared towards the customer. BT have a separate customer service department which deal specifically with helping and dealing with customer complaints or queries. Slogans like customer is king, customer is always right and customer comes first is customer care at its extreme. However the essence of customer care is that if the service, assistance and attention shown to the customer are second to none then that company will have the upper hand in competing in business BT 's External Customers British Telecom in...
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The future of management as it relates to organization and their structures is already taking shape in innovative and forward thinking companies. The newer models will become more and more the norm as time goes on. Corporations large and small have realized that the old paradigm of top-down management is often too cumbersome and too slow and in many cases simply too outdated to be effective in today's fast-paced economy. The traditional hierarchal structure may allow top management to feel as if they are in control of the organization, but the reality is that pressures from the marketplace demand that organizations become more flexible, agile and highly responsive to customers. If unresponsive Company A cannot deliver what the customer wants quickly, then flexible Company B will do so in a heartbeat. In addition, globalization has increased competition tremendously. In order to survive and especially to thrive, organizations must adopt the most innovative structure they can accomplish. In recognition that hierarchal structures are too rigid to provide speed and agility in meeting consumer demands some organizations have flattened out their structures and many more will do so in the future. They have replaced individuals, functions or departments as the basic work unit with teams of individuals as the basic work unit. The team members are brought together for their expertise and knowledge about a specific project or company function. In teams, there is no formal hierarchy; everyone has a role to play that is not determined by position but by their ability to move the project forward. Networks are another management trend of the future that flattens out organizational structure and enhances agility. Networks may be formal or informal. In either case they link together managers of various departments who communicate and work together as a multidisciplinary team. Added to the formal and...
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I. Introduction. The University of Melbourne is a large and developing corporation consisting of a diverse workforce of approximately 5000. The University realises that in order to achieve competitive advantage the firm must seek to harness their human resources in innovatory ways. Facilitation of such has been sought through the analysis and subsequent redesign of jobs. The current design of Human Resource Officer (HRO) strongly advocates the satisfaction of high quality work performance through the advancement of employee motivation. However, analysis provides that collateral refinement of the current design may further enhance the enrichment of the position. II. Key Issues. A. Job Analysis The importance of job analysis to managers and organisations can not be understated. Almost every HR activity requires some type of information that is gleaned from job analysis (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Patrick, 1994). The environmental challenges facing today's rapidly evolving business world demand a proactive response from managers and HR, the information provided by job analysis more readily facilitates such a response (Werther and Davis, 1996). There is, hence, pertinence in the notion that job analysis is the building block of all that a HR manager does (Noe et al, 1994). The prominence of job analysis in HRM is easily identifiable, the application extends much further than the shaping of job descriptions, but rather infiltrates a myriad of different HR activities such as, HR planning, selection, performance appraisal, training and development, and job evaluation (Blunt, 1986). Broadly speaking there are three alternative approaches to job analysis, explication of job content, job requirements and job context. Fortunately, these are not mutually exclusive and each will yield different insights and information regarding the job. It is necessary to examine all three approaches together, because a dependence on any one will skew the analysis (Billsberry, 2000). A number of alternative methods were adopted to analyse the...
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Project. Leadership And Motivation Student Conor O'doherty Project Three Outline the factors which you consider to be the key to the success of the role of the supervisor in the motivation and leadership of staff ..reflect on the successes and failures you have experienced in your own position in the work place. Introduction The question is to be a successful the supervisor must motivate their staff to do the job.There are several theories on this motivation of staff .Which I will go into in the main part of the project will deal with the different theories of motivation available to a supervisor but these will be based on their company policies etc. The second part is on Leadership of the supervisor .The area's,Motivation and Leadership go hand in hand to motivate a staff ,a supervisor must have good leadership skills. As stated earlier Motivation and Leadership go hand in hand with leadership being more powerful then motivation . You cannot motivate staff if you are not good in leadership skills. This may be a powerful statement to make but in the main section I will prove this with personal experience Main Section Motivation refer to the inner drive of people .Why do people act in the way they do from a work perspective it is important to know why some people work harder than others why some people are motivated and others are not (Harvey 1997; p161) The statement given is important to supervisor , as a supervisor they are in charge of groups and are responsible for the output of the group .As a supervise you must motivate your group A motivated workforce will perform above the norm . If as a supervisor you don't take motivation a serious . You can find yourself in a bad way . A supervisor can motivate its workforce in several ways 1.Using motivation theories 2.Company policy There are...
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