The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is one of America's oldest and most feared groups. Driven by the dream of a world with only one master race, the KKK often uses violence and moves above the law to promote their cause. They didn't start of violent, or to promote white supremacy. They have been in the shadows for over 130 years and continue to thrive in America's society today. The Ku Klux Klan began almost accidentally during the reconstruction period after the civil war in the Southern United States. The southern people had suffered greatly from the effects of the great war. Many of them lost their homes and plantations. Many also lost friends and loved ones to the war. The people needed a release from the sorrow of everyday life. In 1865, six men from a small town in Tennessee accidentally began what has grown to be the largest and most feared "hate group" in the country. The men decided to make a club to help release the stress of the times. The men were all poor and could not afford to make gowns or great costumes for the group, so they decided to use linens. They wore the linens over their backs and put pillowcases on their heads. They also draped the linens over their horses. The Ku Klux Klan was going to ride for the first time. In the beginning, the men wanted to do nothing more than play pranks on people. However, the people were more frightened than they were cheered up. They soon realized what they could do with these fear tactics. The South had turned into a place that was no longer theirs. The slaves were now free (many of these men were slave owners) and carpetbaggers were coming from the North to take advantage of the...
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The annual herb Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, is indigenous from Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe. Although used for centuries as a medicinal anesthetic, Opium's abuse became inevitable. Opium was single-handedly responsible for centuries of addiction in China and Britain, and is now strictly controlled in America by the FDA, and by international agreements. The Opium Poppy has been used in the Chinese culture dating back to the fourth century A.D. The Chinese first used Opium for its anesthetic properties during surgery and for chronic pain. The plant was rarely used until the seventeenth century, when the Dutch introduced tobacco in China. Opium's recreational use began as an additive to tobacco. Eventually, the mixture became more dependant on Opium than tobacco, until Opium was smoked alone. The recreational use of Opium grew and migrated into the Middle East, and farther, finally reaching Eastern Europe. The British made the Chinese Opium dependence worse by controlling it's growing regions and encouraging its use in China. By this time, regions around Pakistan, Saudi Arabia over to India were ritually smoking the drug in mass quantities. By the late seventeenth century, addiction to Opium was so widespread throughout Great Britain, Europe, and Asia, that Britain sought the destruction of the plant rather that its manufacture. Now, the growth and distribution of Opium poppies is highly regulated and grown for pharmaceutical purposes only. The annual herb, Opium Poppy, has been in World History for centuries. It has proven both a benefit and problem to society. It has caused wide- spread addiction throughout China and Britain. Only through international cooperation on its regulation, has Opium been allowed to grow and its benefits can be utilized. Bibliography Annett, H.E., Sen, H.D., and Singh,H.D., "Investigation son Indian Opium, No.1, Non- Environmental factors influencing the Alkaloidal content and yield of latex from the opium poppy...
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The History, Present, and Future of the International Olympic Committee Kyle Beyer Mr. Gayan Sophomore Composition April 15, 2002 The Olympics have been a highly regarded pastime for many thousands of people. What many people do not know about though, is what goes on behind the scenes at an Olympic game. I will talk about the history, present, and future of the governing body of the Olympics, the International Olympic Committee, the IOC. To understand how the IOC works, we must first take a look back at what started it all, the history of the ancient Olympics. The first Ancient Olympics originated in Athens, Greece (Henry 13). Back then, the idea of the Olympics was for Rome to confirm itself as the greatest nation (Henry 13). Over the years, as rulers and nations changed, the idea of the Olympics held with them (Henry 13). As the nations changed, so did the events, and the events run today are quite different that what was run in the Ancient Olympics (Henry 14). Today in our modern Olympics, you see a vast array of events, with many of them being team oriented (Henry 14). Running Relays, Basketball team, and boating teams are just some of the examples (Henry 14). But in the ancient Olympics, no team events were found, all events were focused on the individual (Henry 14). Some of the event in the ancient Olympics included chariot races, long distance running, and contests of strength (Henry 14). The contests of strength included stone throw, similar to our shot-put throws, gladiator and similar one-on-one battles (Henry 14). For such brutal events, one would expect grand prizes, but it was not so. Prizes back then included olive wreaths and their name written on a stone (Henry 14). They did not believe in elaborate gifts for the winners, as they were there to honor...
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The history of the Internet is long and complicated. When the idea began it was not supposed to be used by consumers, but instead by people of the "scientific and military fields" (Howe). There were many fundamental steps, spanning over 35 years, which played a crucial role in the development of the Internet. It all began in 1957 when Russia, known as USSR back then, launched Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite, into orbit. "The effect in the United States was electrifying" (Griffiths). For the first time the US felt vulnerable towards Russia and as a result the creation of a new Defence Department called ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) was their way of responding. Tensions between the US and Russia grew during the Cold War. The US Air Force wanted to create a network that would allow them "to maintain command and control over its missiles and bombers," (Kristula) even after a nuclear attack. In 1966 the research in networking has advanced sufficiently to allow Lawrence Roberts to develop a plan for ARPANET, a computer network system that would later become the Internet. The ARPANET would function on the idea of a packet switched network. This consists of data being broken down into parts or packets. Each packet was then labelled with an original and destination address, as well as with information that would keep track of each packet. "If a packet was lost during the transfer, the message could be resent by the originator" (Kristula). In 1969 the ARPANET was brought online for the first time. The network consisted of "four major computers at the following universities: UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah" (Howe). The experiment was such a success that by 1971 there were already 23 computers linked to the ARPANET network (Griffiths). The next step...
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The use of internet has spread like wild fire in the last ten years. It has become a part of everyday life for many Canadian citizens. It is one of the newest and most forward-looking media and surely ¡°the¡± medium of the future. The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. Traditional barriers to the exchange and interaction of information were eliminated as this new communication technology developed. As we all know, invention is rarely the isolated product of a lone scientist or engineer. Instead, every significant technology in the modern world is the product of a long history of numerous people and events. ¡°The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s that saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields.¡± (By Walt Howe, Manager of the Delphi Navigating the Net and Publishing on the Web Forums) In Aug 1962, J.C.R. Licklider of MIT wrote a series of memos discussing his "Galactic Network" concept. He proposed a globally interconnected computers network. The concept was very much like the Internet of today. At DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), he promoted his networking theory to his successors and they together to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock at MIT developed the theory of using packets rather than circuits, which was a major step along the path towards computer networking. In 1965, Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected two computers via a dedicated phone line. The experiment proved that time-sharing computers could network but it also proved that the circuit switching was not adequate and he approached ARPA to develop the computer network concept further. The result of this experiment also confirmed Klein rock¡¯s theory. (A Brief History of the Internet (http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/) In late 1966 Roberts...
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The Internet as we know today was not a concept that was quickly enacted when it was first thought up. It was a revolutionary process that was the result of visionary people who painstakingly brought forth the World Wide Web. These individuals saw a promising potential in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. This is all started in 1962 when the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated a research program. They selected J.C.R. Licklider of MIT to head the work and develop it. Later Leonard Kleinrock of UCLA who developed the theory of packet switching, which was used to create the basis of Internet connections. His thesis was titled Communications Networks: Stochastic Flow and Delay. This thesis examined what packet-switching networking could look like. Lawrence Roberts of NIT confirmed Kleinrocks' theory by connecting a Massachusetts computer with a California computer over dial up telephone lines. This proved that it could be done and when he later joined DARPA in 1966 he developed his plan for ARPANET. ARPANET, also known as the Internet "was brought online in 1965 under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)" (Howe 2). It originally connected UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah. Soon after several other universities connected to ARPANET. In order for ARPANET to communicate via the telephone lines a series of protocols were developed Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) came first then TCP/IP developed from these. These protocols communicated transparently across multiple, linked packet networks. The ultimate infrastructure was designed that if "sites were destroyed by nuclear attack, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes. Since this was a initially founded by the government, it was originally limited to research,...
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Location: The South Central region of present-day Mexico was once the home of the Aztec. They lived in the highlands of Mesoamerica in an area of basins separated by eroded volcanic peaks and dissected mountain ranges. History: The Aztecs came from the remote north, probably around the early 13th century. They were migratory at first, wandering around the Mexican Valley struggling to survive. They were even enslaved once by another tribe. In the year 1325, however, they stopped their migratory pattern on the southwest border of Lake Texcoco as they beheld an eagle sitting on the stem of a prickly pear. He was holding a serpent in this talons and his wings were open to the sun. They saw this as an omen, announcing the location of their future city and capital, Tenochtitlan. In order to build their city, the swamps and standing water around them had to be drained and artificial islands were constructed to form gardens. The Aztec maintained their subsistence by utilizing fishing, hunting, gathering and gardening techniques. The valley rivers were rich in fish, insects, shrimp, tadpoles, and a naturally occurring pasta called ahuatle. Those near the ocean ate crabs, oysters, fish and turtles. Thus, the water was a major source of food for the Aztec who wished to utilize them. Among the wild animals are rabbits, snakes, armadillos, deer, pumas and coyotes. Along with the hunting of some of these, the ancient Aztecs also hunted the wild turkey. Many of the gathered plants eventually became domesticated by the Aztec. These crops include cocoa, vanilla, bananas, squash, pumpkin, beans, chili, tobacco, onions, red tomatoes, green tomatoes, sweet potatoes, jicama, huautli and maize. Raiding and warring often began simply to collect captives for use in sacrificial offerings to the principal Aztec god, Huitzilpochti. The Aztec conquered many other tribes, allowing them...
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The clock is one of the most influential discoveries in the history of western science. The division of time into regular, predictable units is fundamental to the operation of society. Even in ancient times, humanity recognized the necessity of an orderly system of chronology. Hesiod, writing in the 8th century BC., used celestial bodies to indicate agricultural cycles: "When the Pleiads, Atlas' daughters, start to rise begin your harvest; plough when they go down" ( Hesiod 71). Later Greek scientists, such as Archimedes, developed complicated models of the heavens-celestial spheres-that illustrated the "wandering" of the sun, the moon, and the planets against the fixed position of the stars. Shortly after Archimedes, Ctesibus created the Clepsydra in the 2nd century BC. A more elaborate version of the common water clock, the Clepsydra was quite popular in ancient Greece. However, the development of stereography by Hipparchos in 150 BC. radically altered physical representations of the heavens. By integrating stereography with the Clepsydra and the celestial sphere, humanity was capable of creating more practical and accurate devices for measuring time-the anaphoric clock and the astrolabe. Although Ptolemy was familiar with both the anaphoric clock and the astrolabe, I believe that the development of the anaphoric clock preceded the development of the astrolabe. The earliest example, in western culture, of a celestial sphere is attributed to the presocratic philosopher Thales. Unfortunately, little is known about Thales' sphere beyond Cicero's description in the De re publica: For Gallus told us that the other kind of celestial globe, which was solid and contained no hollow space, was a very early invention, the first one of that kind having been constructed by Thales of Mileus, and later marked by Eudoxus with the constellations and stars which are fixed in the sky. (Price 56) This description is helpful for understanding the...
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The RCTA, located at the NAS, Meridian, MS, began as a component of the law enforcement agency sponsored, congressionally directed, Gulf States Counterdrug Initiative (GSCI). The purpose of the GSCI was "to identify resources, services, and support that can be legitimately provided by DOD components and agencies to support counterdrug activities along the U.S. southern coastal region." Although sponsored by law enforcement, six U.S. Senators, nineteen U.S. Representatives, and three state Governors heavily endorsed the GSCI proposal. One of the provisions of the GSCI document was a request by the Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi senior drug law enforcement agencies (DLEAs) to establish a counterdrug training academy with the mission of training law enforcement officers in counterdrug skills. The Academy mission was initially focused on the three requesting states, but, beginning January 1, 1997, the state of Georgia became an official member of the GSCI. In addition to the GSCI states, the RCTA provides training to law enforcement agencies throughout the U.S., including the National Guardsmen involved in counterdrug support missions. This training is provided at no cost to the law enforcement officers or agencies. The only cost incurred by the agency is the transportation to and from the Academy. National Guard personnel do not incur a tuition cost, but are responsible for their own per diem and travel. Based upon the LEA request for DOD "support" (defined as funding, administrative, logistical, equipment, personnel, etc.), and with guidance and resources provided by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Coordinator for Drug Enforcement Policy and Support, and the National Guard Bureau (NGB), the Mississippi National Guard accepted the mission of establishing a regional training center outlined in the GSCI document. Initially it was decided that the training center would be located on the Naval Air Station in Meridian, MS. A decision was made to...
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There is a forty billion dollar-per-year dishonest cost in the business community, and 20% of businesses are estimated to go out of business due to theft. Theft is a problem which is seen more and more than ever before. With the inventions of space-aged, modern technology, businesses are turning to it to fight the battle of theft. Lie Detector tests are the new defense against theft. A lie detector tests includes a polygraph, deceptograph, voice stress analyzer, psychological stress evaluator, or similar devices. Theses devices are used to render a diagnostic opinion pertaining to the honesty or dishonesty of an individual. The main reason many government, law enforcement, and private sector employers use lie detector tests are because they think the test will frighten away liars and cheats who are seeking jobs, or it will frighten confessions out of those accused of wrongdoing. Richard Nixon stated, " lie detector tests are a tool of intimidation." In this paper I will defend my thesis that lie detector tests, mainly polygraph tests, used in the screening of existing employees or new hires is immoral. The tests are discriminative, an invasion of privacy, and coercive. One reason for accepting my thesis is that the polygraph test discriminates against false positive people because of the unreliability of the test and the person administering it. Polygraph tests continuously, visually, permanently, and simultaneously records changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, and electrodermal patterns as minimum instrumentation standards, which is used to render diagnostic opinion as to the honesty or dishonesty of an individual. The problem of nervousness, anger, sadness, embarrassment, and fear can all be causal factors in altering one's heart rate, blood pressure or respiration rate. Having to go to the bathroom can also be causative. Also, there are a number of medical conditions such as colds,...
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