The traditional idea of an artist standing at an easel is probably not a reality today. All the skills that have been acquired over hundreds of years are now being lost. Painting no longer has the force it once had. 500 years ago, people couldn't read. Artists at that time were very important people. People had to look at their paintings to find out about things, this time was called the renaissance. Impressionism Impressionists were a break from tradition. They were the first artists to use bright colours. This is because they took their canvases outside. When you work out of doors, you have to work quite quickly to catch sunsets e.t.c. For the people in those days, the pictures looked unfinished and messy, so when they tried to exhibit their pictures in all the official galleries, the academy refused. So in 1874 they organised their own exhibition in a photographers studio and it was nicknamed by a journalist, that they weren't really paintings, just impressions. They didn't paint what people thought were suitable subjects. As well as the usual slapdash paintings, the critics didn't like the things that they painted e.g. railway stations, people in cafes, ordinary people doing ordinary things. The impressionists reflected the political thinking of the time; they started to pay attention to the ordinary people and not just the rich. The impressionists said, "We want to paint modern life in a modern way." They used, what was then, the modern discovery of photography. It helped them paint things that only lasted for a short time. They were also influenced by newly discovered work by Japanese artists. One of the most important impressionists was Claude Monet. He was born in 1840 and died in 1926. The most important part about him was that he decided to work exclusively in front of his subject. He loved all...
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"The Impressionists were subjective painters, who looked at nature in their own individual ways. The results were, hardly surprisingly, very different, when we consider the divergent styles of say Monet, Degas, Renoir, Gauguin, and Seurat. Perhaps the greatest achievement of Impressionism was to capture the effect of real sunlight on canvas. It is possibly this that made their pictures the most popular, and the most expensive, of the 20th century." Impressionism began in the late 1800s in France. It is characterised by depicting objects and scenery naturally, making detail of their light and colour. Impressionists made their paintings look like a first impression (this was first noted in a painting by Claude Monet, titled Impression: Sunrise), and were critized for it. Their works were said to appear incomplete. Each of these artists opposed the traditional, dry style of painting. Although some people appreciated the new paintings, many did not. The critics and the public agreed the Impressionists couldn't draw and their colours were considered vulgar. Their compositions were strange. Their short, slapdash brushstrokes made their paintings practically illegible. That made viewers wondered why they didn't considered finishing their artwork. Impressionism broke every rule of the French Academy of Fine Arts, the conservative school that had dominated art training and taste since 1648. Impressionist scenes of modern urban and country life were a far cry from the Academic efforts to teach moral lessons through historic, mythological, and Biblical themes. This tradition featured idealised images. Symmetrical compositions, hard outlines, and meticulously smooth paint surfaces intending to hide all traces of the artist's brushwork characterised academic paintings. Works of the Impressionists submitted to the Academy were rejected. The art works of the Impressionists were considered to be shocking, unfinished and insulting. The Impressionists were frustrated. To them, traditional painting seemed outdated and irrelevant. Disappointed by the...
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Discuss about “If the Impressionists had been dentists (A Fantasy exploring the transposition of temperament)”, an essay from “Without Feathers”, a book written by Woody Allen.Novels
This essay from Woody Allen answers the following question: what if impressionists were not artists? It seems Mr. Allen found an appropriate answer: they would be… dentists! He wrote this piece that puts oral surgery in a whole new light, in Allen's distinctive style. The whole play deals with a parody on the life of Vincent Van Gogh, become a dentist and writing to his friend Theo to talk about his new life, much more exciting than a normal dentist and than an usual impressionist painter. Humour consists in keeping the impressionists' temperament as Woody Allen feels it and to apply it into a job where it provokes disasters. Indeed, this transposition of temperament makes impressionists very bad dentists, as we will discover it. First, why being respectful of patients? Impressionists never thought about customers when they were painting an old master. They would paint it the way they liked it. So let's keep the same state of mind when making a bridge for Mrs. Sol Schwimmer: "Mrs. Sol Schwimmer is suing me because I made her bridge as I felt it and not to fit her ridiculous mouth!" Patients do not seem to be very comprehensive. Even more when the bridge is "enormous and billowing, with wild, explosive teeth flaring up in every direction like fire!". Stupid Mrs. Sol Schwimmer who would rather have a bridge fitting her mouth and sustaining its part than a beautiful painting, moreover an impressionist painting. Maybe the help of Cézanne, who is old and infirm, could help Vincent? Then, professional work is still artwork that belongs to its author. As they take dentals X-rays, results catch the eye by their imperfections and impressionists-dentists are very critical about it. A partner's hard review can make one of them being very sad about this artwork. If this...
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On November 10, 2001 the world ultimately granted China membership into coveted trade organization, the WTO. Not since Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms of 1978 has China made such a giant leap toward the creation of a market economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) finally opened its door on Saturday to China, the world's most populous ?C and one of the most robust ?C economy, sending a positive signal to the world economy loitering on the brink of a full-blown recession?(Xinhua, Financial Times) With the completion this fifteen year negotiation, China will now be forced to abide by international trade regulations so as to completely open its doors with ten years. WTO membership will provide countless economic benefits to China's burgeoning economy but the initial adjust period will certainly cause massive unemployment and possible political unrest. With economists projecting that if current growth rates continue the Chinese economy will surpass Japan, China is on the brink of dominating the Asian economy. Although there are many circumstances that may derail this progress, the Chinese now have the tools necessary to develop the powerhouse economists have been citing for the past decade. China's entry into the WTO was particularly slow (fifteen years of negotiating) for a variety of disparities; from trade barriers to individual market reforms. During negotiations the American delegation was particularly stringent on removing China's tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade. For instance, so as to protect China's infant car industry, the government established a one hundred percent import duty on all foreign automobiles. Non-tariff barriers such as quotas and licensing also made business difficult for foreign companies. To purchase foreign appliances Chinese citizens were often forced to purchase a license to have the unit installed. These anti-competitive devices needed to be abolished so as to comply with the spirit of fair competition...
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Abuse of drugs can have effects on the user even after the use of drugs has stopped. Different drugs produce different effects, depending on the user, type of drug, and severity of abuse. New research is done every day in the area of drug abuse that makes finding accurate results on the broad topic of drug abuse very difficult. From the most recent studies only can one find data that is presently accepted as correct. These numerous studies provide enough data to explain the effects of both legal and illegal drugs. To understand how drugs work, it is necessary to understand the changes that take place in different areas of the body when drugs take affect. Found in the brain are the synapses, the interaction point of two neurons (Perrine, 1996). The synapses in the brain are often the main target of a drug, altering the perception of something at the point of perception. When a drug is taken, it attaches itself to receptors in the brain, which have a pattern chemically similar to the neurotransmitters that send and receive messages in the brain. Perrine makes the analogy of a drug to receptors as a hand to a doorknob. Because certain drugs can attach themselves to these receptors, they may become blocked, and the neurotransmitters originally being sent by the brain's neurons are forced to wander around the brain until it can find another similar receptor, possibly creating a false signal (Perrine, 1996). The physiological responses created by these false signals, sent by both the drug and the extraneous neurotransmitters are what are perceived to be the effects of the drugs. However, the effects of drugs vary greatly from person to person. Perrine states that are four main aspects to keep in mind when considering the effects of drugs on each...
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Hawaii, by James A. Michener, is a novel which covers, on both a fictional and a non-fictional level, the total history of Hawaii from its beginning until approximately 1954. The work traces Hawaiian history from the geological creation of the islands ("From the Boundless Deeps) to the arrival of its first inhabitants, ("From the Sun-Swept Lagoon"), then to the settlement of the islands by the American missionaries, ("From the Farm of Bitterness"). In the novel, as the island's agricultural treasures in pineapple and sugar cane were discovered, the Chinese were brought as plantation workers to Hawaii ("From The Starving Village"). Years later, when it was realized by the island plantation owners that the Japanese were more dedicated workers, and did not feel the need to own their own lands as the Chinese did, they too were shipped in vast amounts to Hawaii, ("From The Inland Sea"). The final chapter deals with what Michener refers to as "The Golden Men": Those who lived in Haw (not necessarily Hawaiians) who contributed a great deal to the islands and their people. Since Hawaii covers such a huge time span, there are a great many plots and sub-plots, all of which show the different situations that each of the many "types" of Hawaiians are confronted with. Michener uses mostly specific, fictional details to support the general ideas of the islands and their various people, that he conveys through Hawaii. I will go into more detail about the plot in the "Documentation" section. Michener's Hawaii is a superb example of a great work of literature. He paints vivid literal pictures of various scenes throughout the novel. For example, in the first chapter, the Pacific Ocean is described: "Scores of millions of years before man had risen from the shores of the ocean to perceive its grandeur and to venture forth upon its turbulent waves, this eternal sea existed, larger than any other of the earth's features, vaster than the sister oceans combined,...
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Immigrants come from all over the world. They fled their country seeking to fulfill their wants and necessary needs to live. The United States of America offers great job opportunities and a healthy environment to live. Some of the countries that illegal immigrants come from are: Mexico, Canada, and China. The majority of immigrants in America are Mexicans. They come to America frequently and they come in large groups, such as families. The Mexican and American border are parallel to each other, making it easy for Mexico residents to illegally cross the border and seek their new life in America. People migrate from country to country searching for a better life. Some of the reasons for leaving their homeland to become residents in America are: wealth, prosperity, hardship, poverty and family. Sometimes, their previous country they resided does not provide enough money to live. Money is a big factor why immigrants flee their country. Nothing in the world is free and sometimes jobs are not so easy to get, especially with no education. Most immigrants (if not all), live in poverty. With no education, jobs do not come easily, making it hard to live in their country. America offers both, education and job opportunities. Sometimes, immigrants realize they do not want their children to live like they do, so they make the run for the border. If an immigrant is pregnant and comes to America, gives birth on U.S. soil, the child and parents are now legal citizens of the United States. The reasons why America is effected and objects to immigration is: population, it brings in cheap labor and it lowers America's living standards. A long time ago, America had room for immigrants and welcomed foreign visitors, until about ninety years ago that changed. Congress passed a law limiting the number...
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Abstract The legalization of prostitution, would not only help with medical issues, it would save money. It is said that prostitution causes inconvenience and troubles to general public. Does the general public have the right to live without prostitution, or do prostitutes have the right to make money. If prostitutions are located in some low-population-density areas, the harms or inconvenience caused by prostitutions will be smaller. The right to be a prostitute or the right to stop prostitution should be granted to general public. Is a legal prostitution system an impossibility because the rights are too difficult to be decided? Government regulations are the only ways to solve this problem. The government should evaluate the total benefits of each side before making any decision. People's minds are more and more open, and it is believed that the advanced technology will enhance the protections sexually transmitted diseases and the benefits monetarily by less law enforcement and taxation should also be considered. This is a very hard decision to make and will never satisfy everyone. Legalization of Prostitution One of the oldest legal debates comes from prostitution, there is no denying that the sex industry has taken international dimensions and is recognized as an economic motor for many countries. Prostitution defined as promiscuous and mercenary sexual behavior with emotional indifference between the partners. There isn't a more specific definition because people perceive it in different ways. Some view it as a dehumanizing act while others see it as an occupation that performs a useful service to society. Because people aren't always able to act out their sexual feelings how they want, prostitution allows them to express these desires. Most people think that the actual sex act is what is illegal. But it's actually the solicitation to perform that sex act for money or other valuables...
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Introduction Martin Luther king and Malcolm X were two of the 21st century's most interesting black leaders and advocates of the emancipation of the American Negro. They were contemporaries but held very different views with regard to how the Afro-American should achieve equality. The key differences to their approach to these challenges lies in their history. Background King was born into a strong middle class family with traditional Christian beliefs. His mother was a school teacher and his father was a Baptist minister. He was highly educated having obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree followed by a Bachelors degree in Divinity and this was subsequently followed by a Doctorate in systematic theology. On September 14, 1948 he entered a Crozer seminary which had a profound influence upon his thinking. Prior to this at Morehouse College, where he obtained his first degree, he became convinced that non-cooperation with evil is as much of a moral obligation as is cooperating with good. However, it was at Cozer theological seminary in Chester Pensylvania that he turned to a serious study of the social and ethical theories of the great philosophers from Plato and Aristotle down to Rousseau Hobbes, Bentham and Locke and all of these great masters stimulated his thinking. He states in his autobiography that the book which left an indelible imprint on his thinking was Christianity and the social crisis by Walter Rauschenbusch he did not accept the view of the inevitable progress. He felt that he was absolutely correct when he related the matter to the bible and felt that the gospel deals with the whole man, not only his soul but also his body, not only his spiritual well being but the material well being and the quality of his own life. Inevitably, at this time he took a strong interest in socialism and studied Das Kapital...
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Marijuana is a major part of society today in the United States. It can be found in many parts of our culture from music to attire. It also is the most widely used illegal drug; almost 18 million Americans used it last year. It is the fourth most widely used drug in the world behind caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. Approximately 200 to 300 million people worldwide use marijuana (Hollister 660). More than 65 million Americans will try it in their lifetime (Dawsey 73). In recent years the debate on whether marijuana should be legalized or not, has been growing. In both California and Arizona legislation was passed to make marijuana available by prescription for people with diseases like glaucoma or cancer. This is a very tough debate because there are many good reasons why and why not to legalize marijuana. Marijuana is nothing new to American society. It has been around for a very long time. Hemp, a fiber in the plant's stem, was once used to make clothes. It was so valuable in the mid-1800's that it could be used to pay taxes (Dawsey 74). The legalization of marijuana could positively impact our society. The first way marijuana legalization could help our society is from a crime aspect. If marijuana were legal, then there would be less marijuana related crimes. For instance, during prohibition there were a lot of gang wars over alcohol, but once prohibition was repealed, the violence stopped because gangsters no longer controlled the alcohol supply. All of the marijuana brought into the United States is brought in by criminals and sold by ruthless people like gang members. If it were legal, companies instead of gangs and drug dealers would sell it. Also, when something is illegal its price is higher because of supply and demand. This causes...
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