This essay aims to look at the success of drug control policies taken by the United States in the 20th Century. I shall be examining the advantages and disadvantages of the various policies that targeted different sections of the drug industry. In order to do this I shall look at policies implemented that were aimed at both the supply side and the demand side and deliberate on their effectiveness at controlling drugs in the US. In the 1960's and 1970's there was a dramatic rise in the number of diagnosed drug addicts in the United States. This was a great concern for the governments at the time and the first policies introduced in the US were aimed at the demand side – to decrease trafficking and addiction. This was because drugs could be smuggled in reasonably small quantities, so in this way they were hard to detect when crossing borders. I think it is important to state now that any statistics used concerning the trafficking and consumption of drugs have to be taken with caution as obtaining such statistics rely upon many estimations. It is impossible to know exactly the extent of drug consumption in the US. The UN General Assembly in 1986 was determined to 'mobilize the international community in an unprecedented global counter-offensive against the international drug menace'. The same year Reagan poured more money into both law enforcement and increased penalties for drug traffickers. Moreover, his crackdown on drugs was not limited to the US. Economic sanctions were proposed against the main drug producing countries. However the apparent failure of these policies initiated under Reagan led the USA to change from a focus on the demand to a focus of cutting the supply. Indeed as the White House stated in 1982, "elimination of illegal drugs at or near their...
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U.S. History The War in Iraq Since the end of the Gulf War of 1991, Iraq's relations with the United States remained poor. In the absence of a Security Council agreement that Iraq had fully complied with the terms of the Persian Gulf War ceasefire, both the United Nations and the United States enforced numerous economic sanctions against Iraq throughout the Clinton administration, and the United States and the United Kingdom patrolled Iraqi airspace to enforce Iraqi no-fly zones that they had declared. The United States Congress also passed the "Iraq Liberation Act" in October 1998, which provided $97 million for Iraqi in order to establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq. This differed with the terms set out by the United Nations, which related to weapons and weapons programs, but made no mention of regime change. Weapons inspectors had been used to gather information on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction program and to enforce the terms of the 1991 cease fire, which outlawed Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction. The information gathered by the inspectors was used in targeting decisions during Operation Desert Fox, a United States and United Kingdom bombardment of Iraq in December 1998 which was supposedly hurried by lack of cooperation between Iraq and the United Nations weapon inspections team. On October 11, 2002, the United States Congress passed the "Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002", giving President George W. Bush the authority to attack Iraq if Saddam Hussein did not give up his weapons of mass destruction. On November 9, 2002, the United Nations Security Council passed United Nations Security Council Resolution, offering Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions notably to provide "an accurate full,...
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Introduction From 1993 to 1996, sixty-one U.S. laws and executive actions were enacted authorizing unilateral economic sanctions for foreign-policy purposes. These sanctions were imposed on thirty-five countries. In 1997, seventy-five countries were affected by U.S. imposed sanctions affecting not only the targeted country but U.S. commerce and consumers. Unilateral sanctions can be defined as the applications of sanctions imposed by one country on another, for example U.S. trade with Cuba. Multilateral sanctions are those imposed upon a target country by the U.S. and its allies. "An economic sanction is defined as a restriction on normal commercial relations with the targeted country. This basically involves restrictions on trade, investment and other cross-border economic activities." (Preeg) The effectiveness of unilateral sanctions and economic incentives, imposed or offered, by the U.S. on foreign governments to persuade the target government to follow western cultural norms is a highly debated topic. The conventional theory about how sanctions are suppose to work assumes that political change is directly proportional to economic hardship. The greater the pain caused by sanctions the higher the probability of political compliance. (Preeg) Economic Hardship vs. Political Change Religious persecution, authoritarian governments that are predisposed to violence and human rights are the root cause for sanctions. They are designed to limit the availability of goods, foods, weapons and financial resources in the hopes that the economic hardship will be enough to persuade either a change of heart in the political powers, or bring an uprising in the masses that will allow for political reform. "The conventional theory about how sanctions are suppose to work assumes that political change is directly proportional to economic hardship, the higher the probability of political compliance." (Lopez) However, sanctions imposed upon a country, like Cuba, can prove to have a dramatic negative effect on the citizens of the country, without ever persuading...
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On November 10, 2001 the world ultimately granted China membership into coveted trade organization, the WTO. Not since Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms of 1978 has China made such a giant leap toward the creation of a market economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) finally opened its door on Saturday to China, the world's most populous ?C and one of the most robust ?C economy, sending a positive signal to the world economy loitering on the brink of a full-blown recession?(Xinhua, Financial Times) With the completion this fifteen year negotiation, China will now be forced to abide by international trade regulations so as to completely open its doors with ten years. WTO membership will provide countless economic benefits to China's burgeoning economy but the initial adjust period will certainly cause massive unemployment and possible political unrest. With economists projecting that if current growth rates continue the Chinese economy will surpass Japan, China is on the brink of dominating the Asian economy. Although there are many circumstances that may derail this progress, the Chinese now have the tools necessary to develop the powerhouse economists have been citing for the past decade. China's entry into the WTO was particularly slow (fifteen years of negotiating) for a variety of disparities; from trade barriers to individual market reforms. During negotiations the American delegation was particularly stringent on removing China's tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade. For instance, so as to protect China's infant car industry, the government established a one hundred percent import duty on all foreign automobiles. Non-tariff barriers such as quotas and licensing also made business difficult for foreign companies. To purchase foreign appliances Chinese citizens were often forced to purchase a license to have the unit installed. These anti-competitive devices needed to be abolished so as to comply with the spirit of fair competition...
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Abortion Clinics Should Not be Closed in the USA In 1973, the Supreme Court's decision made it possible for women to get safe, legal abortions from well-trained medical surgeons, and therefore led to dramatic decreases in pregnancy-related injury and death ("abortion"). Now there is a new proposal to close abortion clinics. This proposal takes away the privacy rights of American women that are guaranteed by our Constitution. By closing abortion clinics the government is not only taking away women's rights, but is also punishing those whom want to exercise their right of a pro-choice woman. Abortion clinics allow thousands of women every year to have abortions. Having the abortion should be woman's personal choice. By closing these clinics, there will be no providers to perform the operation, so the choice has already been made for them. Closing the clinics will increase the barriers of having an abortion. When there are too many obstacles, the right to make their own choice is taken away from them. In 1973 the American Supreme Court ruled that Americans' right to privacy included: "the right of a woman to decide whether to have children, and the right of a woman and her doctor to make that decision without state interference" ("abortion"). The Constitution says we have a right to privacy, so taking away a woman's chance to make decisions about her own body violates that right. The American Civil Liberties Union defends the Constitution and peoples' rights. ACLU has protected the rights of abortion for women, and in recent years has argued mayor cases opposing restrictions that deny woman access to reproductive health care ("ACLU"). Policy 263 states: "The ACLU holds that every woman, as a matter of her right to the enjoyment of life, liberty, and privacy, should be free to determine whether and when to bear children."(The...
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Comparison of United States, United Kingdom, and Chinese Accounting Systems, Accounting Standards, Accounting Practices This report discusses the accounting practices of the following countries U.K, U.S.A and China. An analysis of these different accounting systems will be conducted on issues such as the growth and background, social, economic and fiscal pressures that have led to each nations current characteristics. Concluding on the direction each nations accounting systems and practices seem to be heading towards. Introduction The main characteristics of U.K accounting is that it is highly dominated by organised accounting profession, which only relate to limited liability companies, no other such entity. A separate fiscal accounting has been developed entirely from commercial accounting. Public sector in the U.K follows its own different rules in accounting. U.K was one of the initial and first countries in the world to develop and have Companies acts containing provisions and also one of the first professional accounting bodies was established in the U.K. Professional accountants and company law play a key role in dominating the U.K corporate financial reporting and play a significant influence varying from external and domestic factors. Britain's financial market is structured around a "capital financial market based financial system" where the stock market funds large scale businesses, trading securities and pricing role. The stock exchange and taxation system have very little influence in financial reporting. Having said that, the stock market has involvement in developing financial reporting standards for listed companies. Although U.K seems to have developed its own companies act and regulations, it still has received indirect foreign influence from member states of the European union through EU directives and from U.S.A with their new accounting standards. Financial reporting and accounting in the U.S.A seems to have a large and dominant influence on accounting in the world today with its largely consistent standards...
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Political, Economic & Social effects of Accounting Standard Setters 'The view that accounting standard setters consider the economic, political and social consequences of accounting standards is consistent with the view that accounting reports, if compiled in accordance with accounting standards and other generally accepted principles, will be neutral and objective' SYNOPSIS Objectivity and neutrality are the ultimate goals of general purpose financial reporting. However there are many factors involved that make this goal almost impossible to attain. Economic, political and social issues are huge influences on the Accounting Standard setting process, and these influences spill over into everyday accounting, with personal gain often ahead of reliability and objectivity. Users of financial reports have demands that need to be satisfied, and regulatory boards involved in Standard setting have done their best to ensure that information is clear and reliable. Considering these factors, Accounting does not exist in a vacuum, Accountants are human beings, not robots and the profession has strict guidelines and heavy penalties for unprofessional or fraudulent activity. It is thus clear that every attempt is made to acknowledge the operating societal factors, gauge the impact they have on different industries at different times and move from that point. The result than, has to be, the best attempt at a neutral and objective report by the professional accountant. Economic, political and social issues are powerful driving forces within any society. These issues therefore need to be focused on when major decisions in industries, are being made. One industry that heavily relies on, and incorporates economic, political and social issues in its' decision-making, is that of Accounting. The Accounting profession is made up of many standards and regulatory boards that govern the way in which entities maintain their general-purpose financial reports. Accounting standards set minimum benchmarks of the quality required in financial reporting. They specify that...
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It was a terrible time for the people in the United States' Great Plains when a seemingly endless drought followed excessive plowing of the soil and caused the earth to let loose it's hold on it's very skin. The stripped red soil boiled up into the air, infiltrating every crevice it could find, inanimate or alive. The Dream Wheat was a treasure crop in the 1920s. With more and more farmers owning tractors and combines they were seeing greater yields and profits than ever before. As a result they planted more wheat, and still more wheat. They expected the world market to continue buying it up as they had in the first few years of rapid production. 1931 saw record wheat crops and profits. Things were looking good. The Market Over Flow The market became glutted with wheat and prices plummeted in July of 1931. Farmers who made 68 cents a bushel in July 1930 made scarcely 25 cents a bushel a year later. Many farmers went broke and abandoned their fields all across the region. Throughout the decade people would be starved out of their homes. John Steinbeck's novel, "The Grapes Of Wrath" was published in 1939 and offers a vivid description of this desperate time. "And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand." John Steinbeck, "The Grapes Of Wrath". The Ruined Land The other part of the problem was that the grasslands were considered worthless and were plowed under so that farmers could grow rich off of wheat. But it turned out that the roots of those scrappy dried out plains grasses were all that was holding the earth together. Without their...
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Why was there economic prosperity in American in the 1920's? I know that America on it's surface was prosperous during the 1920's. I know this because of the physical signs, and the evidence I have found supporting this concept. Some of the physical signs of the then prosperity are evident today, like the skyscrapers and Empire State building. There were the inventions of manufactured fabrics and materials such as Bakelite, artificial silk and Cellophane. Airlines carried almost half a million passengers a year, which compared to Europe at the same time, was a massive number of people. In this essay I will analyse all the reasons behind the economic prosperity in 1920. World War 1 assisted America's latter prosperity. Throughout the war American industry benefited, because countries that couldn't buy goods from Europe, did so from America. And along with this Europe bought products from America, products that they weren't producing while they were fighting. Furthermore, during the First World War, American banks lent money to their European Allies. In the 1920's, this was being paid back with interest. The war had also led to advances in technology, such as mechanism and manufactured materials. Production of Iron Ore, coal, petrol and wheat and exportation of chemicals, wheat, iron and steal all had increased considerably by the end of the war. By the end of the war, America had decided to isolate itself from the problems of Europe, and set itself about making the most profit in business. This isolationism built up the confidence of the American people. An increase in personal wealth, demand and output production all helped America's prosperity. Banks were eager to lend money to businesses and individual's. With this easy money, and the introduction of hire-purchase schemes, the demand for products increased. Consumer spending was incredibly high, which is reflected...
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Unlike conventional wars, the war in Vietnam had no defined front lines. Much of it consisted of hit-and-run attacks, with the guerrillas striking at government outposts and retreating into the jungle. In the early 1960s some North Vietnamese troops, however, began to infiltrate into South Vietnam to help the Vietcong, and supplies sent to Hanoi from the USSR and China were sent south down the so-called Ho Chi Minh Trail. The war began to escalate in the first week of August 1964, when North Vietnamese torpedo boats were reported to have attacked two US destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Acting on the resolution passed on August 7 by the US Senate (the so-called Tonkin Gulf Resolution), authorizing increased military involvement, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered jets to South Vietnam and the retaliatory bombing of military targets in North Vietnam. From 1964 to 1968 General William C. Westmoreland was commander of US forces in South Vietnam; he was replaced in 1968 by General Creighton Abrams. In February 1965, US planes began regular bombing raids over North Vietnam. A halt was ordered in May in the hope of initiating peace talks, but when North Vietnam rejected all negotiations, the bombings were resumed. In the meantime, the United States continued to build up its troop strength in South Vietnam. On March 6, 1965, a brigade of American marines landed at Ðà Nang, south of the demilitarized zone (DMZ) that had originally been set up at the time of partition. The marines, the first US combat ground-force units to serve in the country, brought the number in the US military forces in Vietnam to some 27,000. By the end of the year American combat strength was nearly 200,000. While continuing the military build-up in Vietnam, the United States made another attempt to end the war....
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