When analyzing Shirley Jackson's short story "The Lottery" from a new historical prospective, many factors must be considered. "The Lottery" was published in The New Yorker on the morning of June 28, 1948. Shirley Jackson had written this short story just three weeks before this day. This date is important when understanding the society in which Shirley Jackson was living and the impact that this historical period had on "The #Lottery." "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson was found to be objectionable by most of its readers. There was a great deal of controversy over the meaning of the story. To Shirley Jackson this story actually had no meaning. When asked by disappointed readers regarding her intention in writing the story, she insisted she had written the story from beginning to end without a purpose, simply as a creative expression put to words. While examining "The Lottery" from a new historical prospective, the author's lack of rationale and assessment of her own work does not make the task any easier. Through careful analysis of the environment in which this piece was written, two possible meanings of this short story have emerged, either Jackson's story symbolizes World War II and how people give up their lives for a cause beyond their control, or it symbolizes her own life as a home maker and its lack of direction beyond the home. By 1948, when the story was written, America had been to hell and back following World War II. In the time period following the war, the American people's attitude was positive, they never thought that something bad could happen to them. The s#ix year long World War II had ended only three years before this story was published and the United States was still intact. The people of our country must have felt invincible,...
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Gregory Luther History Thesis 10/15/01 "Triumph in battle offers twin trophies to the victors. Their writers can impose on history their version of the war they won, while their statesmen can impose the terms of peace." --Winston Churchill "The first law of history is not to dare to utter falsehood; the second is not to fear to speak the truth." --Pope Leo XIII "We should not forget that in the long run the Pope in Rome is a greater enemy of National Socialism than Churchill or Roosevelt." --Reinhard Heydrich In 1901, Winston Churchill ominously predicted that the wars of men would be far bloodier and more costly than the wars of kings. How prophetically accurate this proved to be for the Twentieth Century--by far, and by all standards and accounts, the bloodiest century mankind has ever seen. Tens of millions of innocent civilians were deported, tortured, and murdered. Millions more were left homeless; and millions never learned the fate of their loved ones. The world was consumed by the madness of war, and many of its leaders were no longer controlling events, but rather being controlled by them. Europe, the birthplace of western civilization, found itself suddenly an amorphous battlefield where the boundaries did less to separate good from evil, and Christianity from neo-paganism and atheism, than it served to distinguish one totalitarian regime from another. To many, humanity, indeed God, must have seemed dead. Perhaps one of history's most difficult tasks is to place oneself in the historical context of a time, or an ethos, or an individual, and to see that very world as someone living then saw it. This is difficult when one considers that we have the comfort and perspective of knowing how events unfolded, or, what Belloc called, "the distorting medium of our later knowledge."(The Great Heresies.) To a Pole in 1939, to an Englishman...
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On February 20, 2003, Mr. Lacy Ward, an administrator at Tuskegee University, came to Alabama State University to give to speak at a program sponsored by the English Honor Society. He spoke about the Tuskegee Airmen, the only black airmen in World War II. Mr. Ward's speech was based the knowledge he has obtained from an extensive study of history. His presentation was very educational, inspirational, and intriguing. The Tuskegee Airmen were the best fighter pilots in World War II. There were 1000 pilots and 14000 members of the ground crew, both men and women. They had the best statistics of any other fighter pilots in the war. The airmen escorted 200 allied bombers. All of them returned. They ended many myths about the abilities of African Americans. Before these great African Americans took to the sky, it was believed that African Americans were mentally inferior because of their brain size. This inhibited African Americans from flying planes. There were African Americans, Booker T. Washington, George W. Carver, Robert Moten, and CDT Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., who refused to believe this. These individuals' actions lead to the Tuskegee Experiment. These men opened a school to teach African American to fly planes. Young men and women came from all parts of the United States to be apart of this experiment. The experiment was successful. From it came the best fighter pilots of World War II, the Tuskegee Airmen. The issue that Mr. Ward stressed was that these brave young African Americans were victorious in two fights. It is obvious that they were victorious in WWII. However, many fail that they were in another battle. This battle was against white America, a battle for equality. They over came the obstacles that led to the Civil Rights Movement. The Tuskegee Airmen won too battles in one...
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In what ways was Adolf Hitler's life remarkable? Hitler was a German political leader, one of the 20th century's most powerful dictators, who converted Germany into a fully militarised society. He launched World War II – though this isn't something to be proud of, it isn't something anyone does everyday. By making anti-Semitism a major key of his propaganda and policies, he was able to build up the Nazi party into a mass movement. There was a time when he dominated most of Europe and North Africa. In what ways was Adolf Hitler's life despicable? Endless trains took millions of Jews to extermination camps… Hitler caused the slaughter of hundreds and thousands of Jews and others who he considered inferior human beings. When Hitler came to power, he quickly established himself as a dictator. Thousands of anti-Nazis were hauled off to concentration camps and all signs of dissent were suppressed. An Enabling Act, which was passé by a legislature, allowed him to 'Nazify' the bureaucracy and the judiciary, replace all labour unions with one Nazi-controlled German labour Front, and ban all political parties except for his own. The whole economy, the media and all cultural activities were brought under Nazi authority by making an individual's livelihood dependent on his or political loyalty. What human qualities were most influential in shaping the way this person lived and influenced his or her times? The great depression of the early 1930's devastated Germany. The population were seeking a leader govern and with foresight to turn around the fortunes of Germany. This is where Hitler came into the picture. He promised to pull Germany out of the Depression, and as they were 'the superior race' they should have a hold over the rest of the world. Subsequently, when he was voted into power, his true character came to the...
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Charles de Gaulle's Free French Movement in 1941 was the leading reason that the Nazis did not over-take Paris during World War II. De Gaulle's courage and patriotism made him the leader of the resistance. At the end of the war, he was honored by General Eisenhower for liberating the official city. On June 18, 1940, soon after he fled France, Charles de Gaulle spoke to the French people from London on BBC radio. Although the British cabinet tried to block his speech, Winston Churchill over ruled them. His speech, which is known as the "Appeal of June 18th" , stated that "The cause of France is not lost. The very factors that brought about our defeat may one day lead us to victory. For France is not alone! She is not alone!" . De Gaulle wanted to create a revolution that would bind together people of all races to fight the Nazis. Though only a few people responded after the broadcast, the Free French Forces rose eventually to a staggering number of 400,000 soldiers. In the two years after the broadcast, De Gaulle's leadership inspired patriotism in the French citizens and columnists. Various French soldiers surrendered and joined the Free French during the allied invasion in Northern Africa. The Free French joined the British in the fight to keep North and West Africa out of the Nazis' hands. The French Forces' increasing numbers also enabled them to combat Italian troops in Ethiopia and the French troops who were loyal to Vichy France. The French Committee of National Liberation under de Gaulle and General Henri Honore Giruad, after fighting in Northern Africa, was then recognized by the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union as the legitimate government of France. For the next few years, Charles de Gaulle and his French Forces continued to...
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1 Introduction "I think God intended the niggers to be slaves. Now since man has deranged God's plan, I think the best we can do is keep 'em as near to a state of bondage as possible. . . . My theory is, feed 'em well, clothe 'em well, and then, if they don't work . . . whip 'em well." -- A Yazoo Delta planter, 1866 Today, in America where the present generation had grown up to respect all people, despite race, age, sex, or gender; comments such as this seem very out of place for our society. The Civil Rights movement was the political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for black Americans and to achieve racial equality. America was born out of a revolution, and the success of the Civil Rights movement proved that when people put their prejudices aside, and work together to strive for what they believe is just, anything is possible. The report begins by describing the type of segregation that was taking place, then, how the blacks began to resist, important events, and key figures in the movement. 2 Segregation Segregation was an attempt by white Southerners to separate their race and the blacks. The Southerners considered themselves to have ultimate supremacy over the blacks, and refused to acknowledge the humanity of black Americans. Most of the blacks knew that they had to put on a brave face, to mask their true feelings and actual personalities whenever they were in the presence of white people. The majority grew accustomed to the pattern of "racial etiquette" in their everyday lives. The White race treated the blacks atrociously. Blacks had to avoid looking whites in the eyes, and black men knew that they were not even allowed to indirectly look, at or touch a white women accidentally. Blacks must stare...
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World War II As a class full of college history students when they think WWII began and a plethora of answers should be expected. Ask a class full of high school history students the same question and expect an even broader response World War II is usually dated by historians to have begun on Sept. 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. Era 8 in Bring History Alive covers the Great Depression to WWII. As with most presentations on history, it is hard to present detailed accounts of causes and consequences of particular historical events. It is necessary, therefore, to dissect particular events into smaller events, easier to study. I chose to study the early phases and causes of WWII in an attempt to present this subject in my future classroom. This specific presentation can be broken down into 9-10 lecture days with a last day of movie viewing. The days of lecture can be divided into the following topics: The world after WWI, and specifically the U.S. and the Great Depression, an introduction to the causes of the war, the failure of peace efforts, the rise of fascism and the formation of the Axis Coalition, and the German aggression and ambition in Europe. Though many people may have many other opinionated factors, these are the ones I have chosen to focus on. World War II can be a very intriguing and captivating subject to teach students because of the many perspectives available for the student to view the war. Unlike the Cold War where tensions only mounted between East and West powers, the World War affected the whole world because of the devastation economically, socially, politically, geographically and many other ways. Through out world history, it might be said that WWII was the world's most devastating war if one measures it in...
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World War II played an enormous role in changing the lives of Australians and created some unforgettable experiences for rural and regional Australians as a result of their involvement in the War effort. Although women did not fight overseas, aiding the British or defending land near and around Australia, they did however make a grand contribution to the War effort. The women assumed the response abilities of the men who left to serve in the War and the women and many youths took on the manpower needed to run the rural properties and businesses. World War II and the threat posed by the Japanese played an enormous role in changing the lives of rural Australians by affecting the living standards greatly, food and petrol consumption, strengthened our bonds with our allies and affected families with death and heroism. Some experiences of rural Australians also changed lives for better or worse. Particularly the experience of women and their contributions changed lives. As a result of Australia's involvement in World War II many Australians living in country communities experienced things that would not be commonly experienced in today's society. Due to the involvement of Australia in World War II many of the young Australian men were sent over sea's to fight along side of Britain and then when Japan joined the War many were recruited and reassigned to places in the pacific to fight along side with the Americans. Because of this many men were absent from their work places and the manpower was very low. The government set up helpful programs designed to replace the lost manpower and that is exactly what they did. Youths between eleven and seventeen joined the VFV (Victory Farm Volunteers) and were the largest single groups in the Emergency Farm Labour Service work force. During the spring...
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The two world wars had a profound effect on Australia's migration program. The resettling of refugees and young people in the postwar periods, especially after World War II, were significant chapters in Australian immigration history. Since the late 1940s, about 5.6 million immigrants from over 140 countries have made Australia their home. The mass migrations of the immediate postwar decades have subsided according to changing circumstances, with the preference now on the entry of people with needed skills and expertise Socially, migration has contributed to Australia becoming one of the most cosmopolitan and dynamic societies in the world. It has meant the introduction of more than 100 languages into Australian life, while English remains the common language. It has also resulted in the growth of community language schools, ethnic media, businesses, diverse religious and cultural activities and variety in foods, restaurants, fashion, art and architecture. Since 1945, immigration has almost doubled the Australian population. This influx has permanently altered the Australian character, and has contributed to the multicultural society of modern Australia. Australia is recognised as one of the most successful nations in building a tolerant, inclusive and culturally diverse society. Australia's multicultural policy rests on three principles : the right to cultural identity, the value of social justice and the interest in economic efficiency. After World War II a census showed that Australia's population was only 7 ½ million people - and if this didn't improve Australia's industries would die and leave Australia open for invasion from more powerful countries. Australia had been bombed in World War II which highlighted the need for better security and a high population to defend it's land. The lack of trained and skilled workers, which Australia needed, was due to the wars and depression. Australia needed to survive, and this was done through planned immigration. For it's first post World War II migration program,...
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4. Synopsis World War II was responsible for the deaths of seventeen million members of the armed forces including 322,000 Americans. Additional millions of civilians died from bombing raids, famine, epidemics and other war-related causes. The United Stated suffered relatively little destruction from the War. The number of American casualties was small compared to the rest of the world. Before and after the United States entered the War, a wide diversity of viewpoints existed amongst the people of the United States. In 1940 Germany was a serious threat to the future of the democratic world. Although most Americans agreed that a German victory would be disastrous to the United States, many opposed the system of a military draft. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in December of 1941, the United States declared war. War had been inevitable for a while, however, it was not until the United States was directly attacked that full public support for war was present. During the War, many opposing opinions existed on issues ranging from the treatment of minorities, to the use of the atomic bomb. "World War II: Opposing Viewpoints" brilliantly provides access to a wide diversity of opinions during World War II. 5. What does the book tell you about life in the United States during that time? What does the book tell you about the treatment of minorities in the United States? American society was greatly affected by World War II. These effects included an expansion of the federal government, a change in the roll of women in the workplace, and the treatment of minorities in the United States. New government policies affected consumers, businesses and farmers. Americans who did not serve in the armed forces were affected by the shortage of goods and accommodations. Government agencies controlled prices and created rationing to manage the economy...
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