"The Latin Passion Play: Its Origins and Development" Written by Sandro Sticca A book report by Desi Moreno-Penson Wednesday, October 27, 1999 Professor Benito Ortolani Theater History Introduction: The Latin Passion Play: Its Origins and Development by Professor Sandro Sticca (State University of New York Press, 1970) is an engaging account which examines the medieval liturgical ceremonies observing the events in Christ's Passion and traces their continuous change in character from the contemplative and thoughtful to the dramatic. Professor Sticca manages to present in this comprehensive body of work some important points. The first point being Christ's Passion becoming an ever-widening and intensive motif as one of the sacred mysteries beginning in the tenth century. Also, there were many new constraints, which allowed a more stylish and expressive form of visualization and description of Christ's Anguish, which would appear in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In the course of this investigation, Professor Sticca cites many varied examples from the treatises and works of many other important and influential historians. These works include: The History of the Greek and Roman Theatre by Margaret Bieber, The Irresistible Theatre by W. Bridges-Adams, and The Drama of the Medieval Church by Karl Young, among many others. I will, in all likelihood, make use of one or more of their axioms and premeditated conjectures in order to present a more sound conspectus of Professor Sticca's disquisition. According to Professor Sticca, the origin of the medieval drama was in religion. From the epoch of the early centuries, the church held an extremely stern and forbidding view of theatrical presentations, which was broadly considered to be licentious representations of decadent paganism. But once this "immoral" theatre had disappeared, at least according to the dictates of the time, the Church allowed and itself contributed to the gradual development of a new drama, which in their view, was not only...
pages: 7 (words: 1682)
Explain the relevance of the title of the book – pointing out who could be considered “mocking birds” and what actual/potential harm was involved. "But remember, it's a sin to kill a mocking bird". This is the one warning Scout and Jem receive when Atticus gives them their air rifles. But why mocking birds and not blue jays? Both Atticus and Miss Maudie believe it is a sin to kill a mocking bird as they "don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy". Harper Lee titles her novel To Kill a mocking bird as two of the main characters were "mocking birds". They were harmed or put in potential danger because of the prejudice about race and class in society, and that of the unknown or different. Two characters in To kill a mocking bird could be viewed as "mocking birds". They were Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. Both do not harm society in any way and both are innocent people. However, because of their ways of living, the morals and principles that they have grown up with, they are picked on by society. Tom Robinson was a gentle, kind and quiet man. He went out of his way everyday to help a white woman, Mayella Ewell, with her duties around her home. However, being black, it was not acceptable for him to feel sorry for a white person. Because of his gentle ways, he is viewed as a mocking bird, innocent and harmless. The inhuman acts towards the mocking bird, Tom, starts when he is accused of raping Mayella Ewell. When Tom is put to trial, Atticus proves conclusively that Tom could not have actually committed the crime he was being convicted of. However, he was still found guilty. Tom becomes the victim of white prejudice when society convicts...
pages: 3 (words: 650)
English Coursework: To killl a mocking bird Question:- Prejudice and courage are powerful themes in "To kill a mocking bird". Show how Harper Lee deals with them in her novel. The author of this well acclaimed book, Harper Lee was born in nineteen twenty six in Monroeville in Alabama. In this aspect she is similar to Scout, also in addition, Harper's father was also a lawyer. "To kill a mocking bird" was written in the nineteen sixties just at the beginning of the black civil rights movement. However, the novel is set around the nineteen thirties. This was the time when Alabama was at the peak of racial tension, thus most events in the book could have been from real experiences. This novel contains many different aspects of life at that time. "To kill a mocking bird" is not just a story of racism; it is a story of childhood, lessons in life, diplomacy, respect, prejudice and courage. When read, it proves how much the world has changed. It still discriminates eg. women still have less power than men and unfortunately some people are still racist, but things have changed for the better. Slavery was abolished about one hundred years ago today. Slaves were treated with no respect at all, like animals. They worked to the bone with no pay just because of the colour of their skin. Black people were shipped along the seas to serve the British or Americans. Although slavery was abolished by the nineteen thirties, black people were still considered as second class citizens compared to white people. Blacks and whites were very much segregated from each other. Separate churches and even separate toilets were made for each race. At that time, white people always overpowered black people. This obviously meant there was much prejudice between each race and this...
pages: 7 (words: 1843)
Don Quixote was written by Miguel de Cervantes and translated, at least the version I read, by Tobias Smollett. The book itself is composed of two volumes with four books each. The comedic story stars Don Quixote, a disillusioned middle-aged Spanish gentleman, as a knights-errant and his squire, Sancho Panza, a simple peasant. This parody is very enjoyable and I hope to inspire you to read it through my brief summery, some intellectual reviews, and my personal review. Don Quixote became obsessed with reading novels of chivalry, and decided to become a knight-errant. He named his horse Rozinante, made the country wench Aldonza Loreno his mistress, though to him, she was Dulcinea del Toboso, and set off on his first adventure to defend the helpless and destroy the wicked. It fails, so he decides to get a squire, Sancho Panza, under the promise that Sancho will become a wealthy governor of an island. They set off on their adventure with stealing, harming rather then defending the helpless, being sick, trampled, bruised, tricked, and meeting plenty of interesting characters. All the while poor Sancho tries to set his masters' outlandish fantasies, but to no avail. Being tricked into coming home, Don Quixote doesn't stay long and soon goes off once again, thus beginning the second volume. With his first and a false second adventures in print, Don Quixote finds his reputation preceding him. They soon meet Duke and Duchess, who makes life miserable for our two heroes' with many devious tricks and exploits. As soon as Don Quixote continues his adventure, he is defeated by the Knight of the White Moon and must go home. At his arrival home, he dies from a fever. This review was first written and read as part of the Hackett Memorial Lecture in 1975: …All is possible and...
pages: 5 (words: 1309)
Should there be an Individual Flat Tax? The Pro Side Introduction While there are a number of different ways to debate the appropriateness of an income tax system, most academicians would agree that there are four broad categories that encompass the basic principles of a good tax system – fairness, ease, minimal interference and conduciveness to economic growth, and adequacy. Is the tax fair? Fairness at the basic level suggests that all people who are in similar circumstances should pay similar taxes. Under this principle of 'equal treatment of equals', one would expect families with the same ability to pay to have the same tax liability. Though not everyone will agree on the definition of fairness, most Americans will accept as fair the principle that the poor pay nothing, the middle class something, and the rich the highest percentage. Is the tax easy to comply with and to administer? Whether a tax system is easy to comply with and easy to administer is a matter of subjectivity. In judging a system against this principle, however, one should examine the costs of compliance by taxpayers (out of pocket expenses such as tax preparation fees and legal fees as well as time spent on compliance) and the government's costs of administering the system. Complexity in a tax system has a tendency to feed upon itself, making efforts to produce a simpler and more equitable tax system even more complex. First, a progressive personal income tax structure complicates the collection process. Second, many IRS regulations exist solely to combat tax evasion and avoidance. As an example, one need only look at the cost of complying with IRA distribution reporting regulations put in place to assure that distributions are properly reported in income. Third, complexity arises from efforts to influence economic and social behavior. The charitable contribution deduction...
pages: 18 (words: 4927)
Soviet foreign policy in the 1920's and 1930's was more practical than ideological. Do you agree? In order to properly assess this question we must understand the nature of the Soviet foreign policy within these two decades. When observing the events of this time we can see that a duality of policy existed within the USSR. One was the obvious ideological policy and the other a more discreet practical policy. During the 1920s USSR's foreign policy seemed very ideological, however in reality there were several concealed examples of more practical actions. As time continued throughout the 1930s USSR's foreign policies did not only become more apparent but also more practical and less ideological. The USSR entered the 1920's with a rather traditional policy, stressing the importance of the global revolutionary movement. This was embodied in the Comintern established in 1919. The Comintern or Communist international was introduced with the mission of encouraging global revolutions. Communists worldwide were called to infiltrate armed forces, factories and villages in capitalist countries, to support colonial revolts, and to mainly support Soviet Russia. As a foreign policy this affected many Western European democratic countries that feared that the Comintern might actually succeed in starting a revolution and therefore disrupt the balance of power. Another example of an ideological policy was USSR's relationship to China. A small Chinese Communist party was formed in Shanghai. Even though the Comintern had ideological aims it used a practical method to achieve them. This was done by advising the Communist party to ally with the Chinese Nationalist party. This peculiar allegiance was needed to fight against foreign influence and armed warlords who ruled China at the time. This policy turned out to be a catastrophe. After several successes in Northern China, the Nationalists turned on their allies killing thousands of Communists in...
pages: 5 (words: 1206)
In what ways is the focus of Changing Perspective demonstrated in the chosen texts? The texts I chose for this essay were: 1. The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost 2. Out, Out- by Robert Frost 3. The Door from stimulus booklet 4. Sky-High from stimulus booklet 5. What Its Like – by Everlast (song) 6. American Beauty the film In all of the chosen texts, the focus of changing perspective is demonstrated. Through use of figurative language, symbols, tone, imagery and key themes, their composers have created pieces of literature that show many facets of life in more than one perspective. From "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost, one of the most renowned poets of our time to "What Its Like" by Everlast, a contemporary rock music artist, all of the texts I have chosen represent the focus of changing perspective. In "The Road Not Taken" Frost depicts a scene somewhere in the persona's past. The persona is standing at a fork in the path he is walking down and must make a choice of either one or the other. The persona knows that he will never be able to go back and make the choice again and therefore he chose the path that was "less travelled by". This poem can be interpreted in many ways and that is where the focus of changing in perspective comes in. Firstly, we can take this poem as a symbolism of the greatest journey of all, life. The persona then is Frost himself and he is recounting his life and how he made a decision to go down a road that was less travelled by and that has made all the difference in his life. Also, this poem acts as a guide for all people who are making choices in life as Frost tells of how "way leads onto way" and...
pages: 11 (words: 2821)
Queen Maatkare Hatshepsut, Pharaoh of Egypt during the 18th dynasty, from 1473 BC to 1458 BC, was one of only a handful of female rulers of ancient Egypt. Her story is unique in Egyptian history, and has been the source of many disputes among scholars. Hatshepsut reigned longer than any other female pharaoh. Among the legacies she left behind, none is greater than the mortuary temple she erected at Deir el Bahari in Thebes, the ruins of which still stand in present-day Luxor. The temple, designed by Senenmut, reflects the adjacent mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II, but is much larger. Reliefs and inscriptions on the temple walls tell stories from Hatshepsut's life, and profess her connection to the divine. Based on current knowledge, this essay will provide detailed information about Queen Hatshepsut and her mortuary temple. Hatshepsut was born around 1502 BC to Thutmose I and Ahmose. Both of her parents were from a royal background, and Thutmose I was Pharaoh when she was born. Her two brothers died in accidents, which meant that she was in a position to take over the throne after her father died. This was an unusual situation because very few women had ever become pharaohs. However, Hatshepsut was favored by her parents over her brothers, and she was beautiful and had a charismatic personality. Thus, despite her being a female, she had the makings to become a queen. Thutmose II was Hatshepsut's half-brother and husband, a common situation in ancient Egypt, where brother-sister and father-daughter marriages were accepted. When Thutmose I died, Hatshepsut was about 15 years old, and Thutmose II took over as pharaoh. Thutmose II died after only three or four years of rule, most likely of a skin disease. Hatshepsut had a daughter, named Neferure, but Thutmose II also had a son with...
pages: 7 (words: 1810)
Discussion On No Real Seperation Of Executive, Legislature, and Judiciary Powers In The UK ConstitutionPolitics
There Is No Real Seperation Of Powers In The UK Constitution Nor Does There Need To Be.'Discuss What are the separated powers? Executive = the administrative branch of government; it makes laws by way of delegated legislation and drafts bills. Legislature = the law making branch of government Judiciary = the law enforcing branch of government What can you say about the separation of powers? The overlap of powers allows Parliament to make any change it wishes by Act of Parliament and helps to insure against arbitrary exercise of power. There is almost complete separation of powers in the USA where governmental intransigence in controversial matters is a much bigger problem than it is here (here the judges can indulge in greater law making activities if necessary). There is little executive-legislature separation in the UK but much legislative-executive/judiciary separation. The concept of the separation of powers was first discussed by Charles Montesquieu (after observing the British system). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- To what extent do we have imperfect separation of powers? The executive controls, and makes the legislature by creating peers(subject to the approval of the Queen), whips, dissolution (subject to the approval of the Queen, but note that permanent prorogation possible without her permission), prorogation (in theory this is under the Royal Prerogative but the Queen's permission is not necessary), controlling the timetable. Part of the legislature (the government ministers) form the executive. The legislature controls the judiciary by removing senior judges (in the name of the Lord Chancellor). The executive (the Lord Chancellor) controls the judiciary by removing (or perhaps worse not removing) junior judges. The judiciary do not have their salary voted on by Parliament The judiciary reviews the activities of the executive. Paid judges cannot be in the Commons. The executive (the Lord Chancellor (with the Prime Minister in appointing law lords)) appoints judges. The executive makes treaties, which have a degree of legislative influence (though not true legislative...
pages: 4 (words: 1027)
With any essay that I write, my main objective is to paint a picture with words. There are three basic guidelines that I follow in order to paint this picture. By writing down my ideas, putting my ideas together on a word processor and then going back to revise is how I compose an essay or any other written work. I feel that these guidelines are essential to a well developed essay. When I'm given a writing assignment, one of the first things that I do is focus on the subject or topic of the essay. If it's a subject that I am knowledgeable of, I would add my own input and incorporate it into my writing. And if it's not a subject that I am familiar with, I would do some type of research on the subject. One of the most important processes of my written work is the gathering of detailed ideas. When I am forming ideas about my subject for an essay, the first thing that I usually do is concentrate on what I want to write. What do I want to say to my audience? What is the purpose of my writing? I have learned that by knowing the purpose of your writing keeps you focused on it. Once I have found the answers to these questions, I try to stay focused. I gather details for my subject that will help support and develop it. I try to utilize sensory details, specific examples, facts and statistics, or incidents or anecdotes - if they are needed. The next thing that I do is figure out how do I want to say it. I'll start by writing out a few sentences about my subject and then I determine which one represents my idea most effectively. Once I have found...
pages: 3 (words: 623)