Should there be an Individual Flat Tax? The Pro Side Introduction While there are a number of different ways to debate the appropriateness of an income tax system, most academicians would agree that there are four broad categories that encompass the basic principles of a good tax system – fairness, ease, minimal interference and conduciveness to economic growth, and adequacy. Is the tax fair? Fairness at the basic level suggests that all people who are in similar circumstances should pay similar taxes. Under this principle of 'equal treatment of equals', one would expect families with the same ability to pay to have the same tax liability. Though not everyone will agree on the definition of fairness, most Americans will accept as fair the principle that the poor pay nothing, the middle class something, and the rich the highest percentage. Is the tax easy to comply with and to administer? Whether a tax system is easy to comply with and easy to administer is a matter of subjectivity. In judging a system against this principle, however, one should examine the costs of compliance by taxpayers (out of pocket expenses such as tax preparation fees and legal fees as well as time spent on compliance) and the government's costs of administering the system. Complexity in a tax system has a tendency to feed upon itself, making efforts to produce a simpler and more equitable tax system even more complex. First, a progressive personal income tax structure complicates the collection process. Second, many IRS regulations exist solely to combat tax evasion and avoidance. As an example, one need only look at the cost of complying with IRA distribution reporting regulations put in place to assure that distributions are properly reported in income. Third, complexity arises from efforts to influence economic and social behavior. The charitable contribution deduction...
pages: 18 (words: 4927)
Soviet foreign policy in the 1920's and 1930's was more practical than ideological. Do you agree? In order to properly assess this question we must understand the nature of the Soviet foreign policy within these two decades. When observing the events of this time we can see that a duality of policy existed within the USSR. One was the obvious ideological policy and the other a more discreet practical policy. During the 1920s USSR's foreign policy seemed very ideological, however in reality there were several concealed examples of more practical actions. As time continued throughout the 1930s USSR's foreign policies did not only become more apparent but also more practical and less ideological. The USSR entered the 1920's with a rather traditional policy, stressing the importance of the global revolutionary movement. This was embodied in the Comintern established in 1919. The Comintern or Communist international was introduced with the mission of encouraging global revolutions. Communists worldwide were called to infiltrate armed forces, factories and villages in capitalist countries, to support colonial revolts, and to mainly support Soviet Russia. As a foreign policy this affected many Western European democratic countries that feared that the Comintern might actually succeed in starting a revolution and therefore disrupt the balance of power. Another example of an ideological policy was USSR's relationship to China. A small Chinese Communist party was formed in Shanghai. Even though the Comintern had ideological aims it used a practical method to achieve them. This was done by advising the Communist party to ally with the Chinese Nationalist party. This peculiar allegiance was needed to fight against foreign influence and armed warlords who ruled China at the time. This policy turned out to be a catastrophe. After several successes in Northern China, the Nationalists turned on their allies killing thousands of Communists in...
pages: 5 (words: 1206)
In what ways is the focus of Changing Perspective demonstrated in the chosen texts? The texts I chose for this essay were: 1. The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost 2. Out, Out- by Robert Frost 3. The Door from stimulus booklet 4. Sky-High from stimulus booklet 5. What Its Like – by Everlast (song) 6. American Beauty the film In all of the chosen texts, the focus of changing perspective is demonstrated. Through use of figurative language, symbols, tone, imagery and key themes, their composers have created pieces of literature that show many facets of life in more than one perspective. From "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost, one of the most renowned poets of our time to "What Its Like" by Everlast, a contemporary rock music artist, all of the texts I have chosen represent the focus of changing perspective. In "The Road Not Taken" Frost depicts a scene somewhere in the persona's past. The persona is standing at a fork in the path he is walking down and must make a choice of either one or the other. The persona knows that he will never be able to go back and make the choice again and therefore he chose the path that was "less travelled by". This poem can be interpreted in many ways and that is where the focus of changing in perspective comes in. Firstly, we can take this poem as a symbolism of the greatest journey of all, life. The persona then is Frost himself and he is recounting his life and how he made a decision to go down a road that was less travelled by and that has made all the difference in his life. Also, this poem acts as a guide for all people who are making choices in life as Frost tells of how "way leads onto way" and...
pages: 11 (words: 2821)
Queen Maatkare Hatshepsut, Pharaoh of Egypt during the 18th dynasty, from 1473 BC to 1458 BC, was one of only a handful of female rulers of ancient Egypt. Her story is unique in Egyptian history, and has been the source of many disputes among scholars. Hatshepsut reigned longer than any other female pharaoh. Among the legacies she left behind, none is greater than the mortuary temple she erected at Deir el Bahari in Thebes, the ruins of which still stand in present-day Luxor. The temple, designed by Senenmut, reflects the adjacent mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II, but is much larger. Reliefs and inscriptions on the temple walls tell stories from Hatshepsut's life, and profess her connection to the divine. Based on current knowledge, this essay will provide detailed information about Queen Hatshepsut and her mortuary temple. Hatshepsut was born around 1502 BC to Thutmose I and Ahmose. Both of her parents were from a royal background, and Thutmose I was Pharaoh when she was born. Her two brothers died in accidents, which meant that she was in a position to take over the throne after her father died. This was an unusual situation because very few women had ever become pharaohs. However, Hatshepsut was favored by her parents over her brothers, and she was beautiful and had a charismatic personality. Thus, despite her being a female, she had the makings to become a queen. Thutmose II was Hatshepsut's half-brother and husband, a common situation in ancient Egypt, where brother-sister and father-daughter marriages were accepted. When Thutmose I died, Hatshepsut was about 15 years old, and Thutmose II took over as pharaoh. Thutmose II died after only three or four years of rule, most likely of a skin disease. Hatshepsut had a daughter, named Neferure, but Thutmose II also had a son with...
pages: 7 (words: 1810)
Discussion On No Real Seperation Of Executive, Legislature, and Judiciary Powers In The UK ConstitutionPolitics
There Is No Real Seperation Of Powers In The UK Constitution Nor Does There Need To Be.'Discuss What are the separated powers? Executive = the administrative branch of government; it makes laws by way of delegated legislation and drafts bills. Legislature = the law making branch of government Judiciary = the law enforcing branch of government What can you say about the separation of powers? The overlap of powers allows Parliament to make any change it wishes by Act of Parliament and helps to insure against arbitrary exercise of power. There is almost complete separation of powers in the USA where governmental intransigence in controversial matters is a much bigger problem than it is here (here the judges can indulge in greater law making activities if necessary). There is little executive-legislature separation in the UK but much legislative-executive/judiciary separation. The concept of the separation of powers was first discussed by Charles Montesquieu (after observing the British system). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- To what extent do we have imperfect separation of powers? The executive controls, and makes the legislature by creating peers(subject to the approval of the Queen), whips, dissolution (subject to the approval of the Queen, but note that permanent prorogation possible without her permission), prorogation (in theory this is under the Royal Prerogative but the Queen's permission is not necessary), controlling the timetable. Part of the legislature (the government ministers) form the executive. The legislature controls the judiciary by removing senior judges (in the name of the Lord Chancellor). The executive (the Lord Chancellor) controls the judiciary by removing (or perhaps worse not removing) junior judges. The judiciary do not have their salary voted on by Parliament The judiciary reviews the activities of the executive. Paid judges cannot be in the Commons. The executive (the Lord Chancellor (with the Prime Minister in appointing law lords)) appoints judges. The executive makes treaties, which have a degree of legislative influence (though not true legislative...
pages: 4 (words: 1027)
With any essay that I write, my main objective is to paint a picture with words. There are three basic guidelines that I follow in order to paint this picture. By writing down my ideas, putting my ideas together on a word processor and then going back to revise is how I compose an essay or any other written work. I feel that these guidelines are essential to a well developed essay. When I'm given a writing assignment, one of the first things that I do is focus on the subject or topic of the essay. If it's a subject that I am knowledgeable of, I would add my own input and incorporate it into my writing. And if it's not a subject that I am familiar with, I would do some type of research on the subject. One of the most important processes of my written work is the gathering of detailed ideas. When I am forming ideas about my subject for an essay, the first thing that I usually do is concentrate on what I want to write. What do I want to say to my audience? What is the purpose of my writing? I have learned that by knowing the purpose of your writing keeps you focused on it. Once I have found the answers to these questions, I try to stay focused. I gather details for my subject that will help support and develop it. I try to utilize sensory details, specific examples, facts and statistics, or incidents or anecdotes - if they are needed. The next thing that I do is figure out how do I want to say it. I'll start by writing out a few sentences about my subject and then I determine which one represents my idea most effectively. Once I have found...
pages: 3 (words: 623)
In Webster's Online Dictionary, the word hero is described as "a man admired for his achievements and noble qualities, one that shows great courage." A modern day hero would be represented through the soldiers who are fighting in the Middle East for America. Those men and women are putting their lives in danger to benefit millions of other people. That is a heroic act that should not go unnoticed. In Maya Angelou's autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, she describes many people whom she felt depicted the word "hero" in all of its glory. I chose to write my essay on three of these main characters in her life: her older brother Bailey Johnson, her mother's boyfriend, Mr. Freeman, and the central character Maya, or Marguerite Johnson. Mr. Freeman is a counter-example of a hero, and the only example that deals with false heroism. Maya never had a father figure in her life, and Mr. Freeman was the only man who ever made her feel wanted. Maya showed her weakness for Mr. Freeman in saying " he held me so softly that I wished he wouldn't ever let me go. I felt so at home. From the way he was holding me I knew he'd never let me go or let anything bad ever happen to me. This was probably my real father and we had found each other at last. (Pg. 73.)" Mr. Freeman gave her a sense of worth, and even though his intentions were cruel and immoral, Maya finally had found what she was longing for. Maya loved Mr. Freeman, but feared him even more. When Mr. Freeman raped Maya when she was eight-years-old, he made sure she would be able to keep the secret from the rest of her family, including her brother Bailey. "If you...
pages: 4 (words: 1008)
"Karen!", she called, "what am I going to write my essay on!" I looked up to see Abby, my animated friend. I felt the corners of the mouth curl up into the familiar smile as she ran toward me and pressed a leaf into my palm. I looked at it for a moment before giving her a quizzical glance. "I picked it for some inspiration but it isn't helping," she said with a huff and a slight frown. I looked down at the crumpled foliage in my hand and turned it round in my fingers. It's fascinating how every leaf is different. I looked at this one - it was a deep green moving into a hint of yellow along the edges. It was about to change. I thought of me - I was changing too and it was scary to no longer be that little girl I had grown used to but a young lady - eager to experience life and yet nervous of what that meant. Things get harder as one gets older and this leaf looked scared to change too - putting off the inevitable. It had deep wrinkles all along it and as I looked at my hand I saw my wrinkles too. I traced the lines with my gaze as I do sometimes when I look into my grandmothers face. Each choice she had made had created a new line, a new memory, a new lesson. It had a deep cut along one of these lines. I thought how heartbreak could do that to a person - cut so deep that it almost tears them in two. But we are one up on the leaves, I thought triumphantly. We can put the pieces back and stitch them so that they grow back together. I looked at the long...
pages: 3 (words: 574)
As I began to think about what I wanted to write my paper about, I thought of all the topics in education that I would like to know more about. I finally choose ADD/ADHD and the use of Ritalin as my subject matter. Not being a parent or an experienced educator as of yet, I see America's propensity to over medicate reaching our youngest population. I think the statement by Dr. Breggin is quite profound, "When we drug millions of children to make them more compliant and easier to manage at home and in school, it says more about our society's distorted values than about our children" (Breggin 1998). I know from my experience in the health care profession, that Americans believe in medication to create a better life for themselves. That can be as simple as getting an antibiotic for the slightest cold or as complex as medicating ourselves to fight a chronic condition. We live in a society that wants everything done quickly. We drive through for our food, banking, prescription pick-ups, and car washes. We develop our pictures in an hour and pay for our gas at the pump. We watch 50 channels of television in a second. Television has learned that it has to be gripping in order to keep up with our wandering minds. We even have televisions that allow you to watch more than one channel at a time. We wonder why our children have trouble paying attention. When do we do anything that requires anything but the most miniscule amount of our attention? How do we expect children to practice the learned behaviors of watching and listening, if we never teach it to them? We spend the first few years of their lives showing them the frenzied world in which we live and then...
pages: 15 (words: 4110)
I chose to write my paper on Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Abilities. I chose this topic because I as well as many people in my family have been labeled "gifted" early on in school. I realize that this is a measure of intelligence defined as the potential for learning, however none of us labeled gifted have done anything more successful than other members of my family. I fact the opposite may be true. Perhaps a gifted labeling made us all lazy. Nonetheless, I would like to know how Piaget's theory relates to how intelligence is measured. Piaget became fascinated early in his studies with the discovery that children of the same age often gave the same incorrect answers to questions, suggesting that there were consistent, qualitative differences in the nature of reasoning of different ages, not simply a quanitive increase in the amount of intelligence or knowledge. This discovery marked the beginning of Piaget's continuing effort to identify changes in the way children think, how they perceive their world in different ways at different points in development. The different stages postulated by Piaget help to explain different rates of learning at different ages as well as the types of learning possible at different ages for the majority of the population. Learning itself is seen by Piaget as a process of discovery on the part of the individual, and learning as a formal activity becomes a system of organization, by which instruction is enhanced by the way the teacher arranges experience. Learning is thus experimental, and Piaget suggests that experiences have meaning to the extent that they can be assimilated. There are two principal learning theories in psychology, one of which focuses on the learning process while the other focuses on ones capacity to learn. Piaget offered a biological theory of intelligence that he presented as a unified approach to intelligence and learning. Piaget restricted the idea of learning to an acquisition...
pages: 3 (words: 676)