Artificial Intelligence System in CG Computers As we can see that CG Computers does not implement Artificial Intelligence. However, CG Computers might consider implement Artificial Intelligence in the company as Artificial Intelligence could bring positive effects to the company. Basically Artificial Intelligent is a computer system that displays "intelligent behavior". In other words, the computer system could function as another human expert which can assist the managers in their daily works. Artificial Intelligence could help the manager of CG Computers to handle complex situation that might occur from time to time. For instances in facing large market and great competitors, Artificial Intelligence can assist the manager of CG Computers in setting the strategic goal of the company and the planning to compete and outclass other competitors. Besides that, Artificial Intelligence has the ability to determine what is important and what is not. Sometimes we just have to handle a lot of facts and data which some of them might be irrelevant or undesired. In this case, Artificial Intelligence could help manager of CG Computers to filter the unnecessary data or information and determine what is important and what is not. Knowing what is important and what is not is very crucial in making all the decisions in a company. One of the most crucial role could be played by A.I. is to help CG computers out of predicament especially when the company is at risk of making loss with the entrance of new competitor in the marketplace. This is a situation, whereby Artificial Intelligence could react quickly and correctly by helping CG computer to plan new strategy in order to maintain the benefits of the company. Furthermore, even without complete information, Artificial Intelligence would still be able to help CG Computers to make important calculations, comparisons and solve problems that might arise in daily work. This...
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Contents 1. GROWING CYBERCULTURES 3 1.1 INTRODUCING CYBERCULTURE 4 2. ETHICS AND PRIVACY RESPONSIBILITY IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT 20 2.1 DEALING WITH ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHILE COMPETING GLOBALLY 21 3. MONITORING OUR SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS WITH TECHNOLOGY 30 3.1 WEATHER MONITORING IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 31 4. GLOBALISATION AND THE DIGITAL DIVIDE 35 4.1 ACROSS THE DIGITAL DIVIDE 36 5. INTRODUCING INNOVATION 39 5.1 INTERACTIONS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN FEDERAL STATISTICAL WORK 40 6. IT AND INNOVATION 43 6.1 TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS 44 7. REFERENCE LIST 47 1. Growing Cybercultures Week 4. Phillip Mahnken. 18/03/2003 Introducing Cyberculture It was very difficult finding an article on cyberculture. Many search engines and different keyword combinations were used. This journal article was chosen because after many hours of searching, this was the only article that even remotely passed the evaluation criteria. There are a few keywords that are shared in the lecture and the article, for example they both refer to multi-user domains (MUD) "…in a chat room or MOO/MUD…" (2003. Mahnken, P). "…a number of virtual environments, including multi-user domains, or MUDs" (2000. Silver, D). The main concepts are from two completely different areas of cyberculture. The lecture talks about the origins of not only cyberculture, but also culture in general. It also touches on where technology came from and the misfortunes that have occurred as a result of technology. The journal article is completely about cyberculture. It goes through each stage of cyberculture history, how it came about and how people have studied it. The article seems more relevant to the topic 'growing cybercultures' than the actual lecture. The journal article is quite accurate. It was found through the search edu engine and both the author and editor are affiliated with American Universities. The information appears original, although there is a huge number of works cited. All quotes are properly referenced. These quotes can back up the accuracy...
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Changing the Motor Oil of a Car In a perfect world, one would be able to buy a car and never have to worry about changing the motor oil. Unfortunately, we don't live in a perfect world, and we are recommended to change the oil every three thousand miles. The motor oil of a car is very important to its performance and lifespan. It is a very simple task, and yet many people fail to do it. There are two different ways to go about changing your car's oil. You can either take it to be done for you at a hefty cost, or you can do it yourself, so you can save money and make sure it is done correctly. Changing your cars oil is a very easy thing to do, and will extend the life of your engine when done correctly. First, you start by buying the oil and oil filter that your car requires. You can get all this information in your owner's manual. If you don't have an owner's manual, just ask the person working at the auto parts store, and he'll be able to look up all the information pertaining to your car on his computer. Before even looking under the hood, make sure that the engine's temperature isn't high. You want the engine to be nice and cold so that you don't burn yourself. Make sure that you pick a good place to change your oil. An ideal spot would be a shaded are with a level ground. You don't want to do it over an extravagantly tiled driveway. It can be a very messy job. To be on the safe side, lay out some old newspapers under the car so if the oil does spill, the paper will be able to absorb most of it. Once...
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Review A gifted storyteller is one who makes his subject come alive. Charles Jencks is unequivocally architecture's greatest living storyteller, He has probably produced nearly as many books and articles during his prolific career as did Le Corbusier, the subject of his latest work. In Le Corbusier and the Continual Revolution in Architecture, Jencks has woven together readings of Corb's writings, paintings, architecture, and city planning with pertinent (and sometimes impertinent) biographical details. It is an epic poem in the tradition of Chaucer, and can be read as such. Jencks's style is jocular, freewheeling, anecdotal, and provocative-- as he is in person. In this book there is much on Le Corbusier that has been said before, by Jencks himself as well as others. Le Corbusier and the Continual Revolution is, in large measure, a revision and vastly expanded version of his Le Corbusier and the Tragic View of Architecture (Harvard University Press, 1973), drawing upon research and testimony that continue to emerge about a man whom Jencks believes to be not only a tragic persona, but a genius as well. He rewrites, splices, condenses, expands, speculates, and even offers his own chart of history so that we may easily visualize developments. Jencks is true to his signature method of interpretation, which proceeds by analogy and metaphor, with limitless imagination. However, he also follows, or leads, a trend in architectural theorizing that has become widespread in the late 20th century, namely to look to other realms of intellectual inquiry for insight and guidance. The absence of a single, comprehensive, overarching theory that might serve practitioners has led would-be theorists, writers, and teachers of architecture to seek parallels within other disciplines, such as literature, linguistics, and sociology. Jencks's references range from Noam Chomsky and semiology in the 1970s to the sociology of David Harvey...
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On 15 October 2003 China launched from the Gobi Deser, China a manned rocket intended for earth orbit. The astronaut an Air Force Lt. Col. Yang Liwei shot across the Axure Nrothwest China sky in the spacecraft named the Shenzhou V translatin "divined vessel" at exactly 9 a.m. and reached the earth's orbit 10 minutes later, they began circling he planet every 90 minutes, and completed 14 orbits which toke approximately 21 hours before executing reentry according to the offical Zinhua News Agency. Through their efforts, Chins has become the third country to launch a manned space ship into the Earth orbit, followed by Russia (former Soviet Union) and the United States of America. Chinese President Hu Jintao, who watched the launch, called it "the glory of our great motherland." (FoxNews, par 3) Dean Cheng Research Analyst with Project Asia at the CNA Corporation in Washington, D.C. states "China is pursuing everthing from micro and mini-satellites, along with the way up through a manned space program. It has been four decades since Russia sent their astronaut Yuri Gagarin into orbit in April 1969, and the United States launched Alan B. Shepard, Jr. less than a month later while John Glenn became the first American to orbit in 1962. While China's space research started in the mid - 1950. In 1967, it established the China Space Technology Institute, and three years later, China successfully launched its first man-made satellite. After 100 odd years of efforts, China became the fifth county in the world to launch a satellite with self-developed carrie rockets, and to master the technology of satellite recovery....
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When designing you will need to choose appropriate materials to make your design from. There are many different types of materials but some are more suitable than others for a variety of reasons. Here is a selection of those reasons. STRONG - The material will resist - Tension forces -Compression forces -Torsion forces -Shear Forces TOUGH - The material can withstand shock (eg Hammer Blows) BRITTLE - The material will break easily if subject to slight shock or force HARD - The material is long lasting by being resistant to wear, weather, heat etc. WEIGHT - Light - Heavy EASY TO WORK WITH - Cutting - Drilling - Smoothing - Fixing/assembling/gluing - Finishing, (eg Paint, Varnish etc) SAFETY - Non - Toxic - non - Flammable - Not Sharp etc. COST - Cheap - Dear TIME ATTRACTIVE - Colour - Pattern - Texture By considering these factors the advantages that certain materials present can be compared and these can also be considered against the disadvantages. Materials Available For Your Project Wood SOFTWOOD - Redwood (Scots Pine) HARDWOOD - Beech - Elm - Oak (European) - Sycamore - Mahogany MANUFACTURED - Plywood - Hardboard - Blockboard - Chipboard - M.D.F METAL FERROUS - Mild Steel NON - FERROUS - Copper - Brass - Aluminium - TinPlate PLASTIC - ACRYLIC - POLYSTYRENE When designing you will need to choose appropriate materials to make your design from. There are many different types of materials but some are more suitable than others for a variety of reasons. Here is a selection of those reasons. STRONG - The material will resist - Tension forces -Compression forces -Torsion forces -Shear Forces TOUGH - The material can withstand shock (eg Hammer Blows) BRITTLE - The material will break easily if subject to slight shock or force HARD - The material is long lasting by being resistant to wear, weather, heat etc. WEIGHT - Light - Heavy EASY TO WORK WITH - Cutting - Drilling - Smoothing - Fixing/assembling/gluing - Finishing, (eg Paint, Varnish etc) SAFETY - Non - Toxic - non - Flammable - Not Sharp etc. COST - Cheap - Dear TIME ATTRACTIVE - Colour - Pattern - Texture By considering these factors the advantages that certain materials present can...
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The civil engineering building project must first start with a one on one meeting with the client. This is the business part of civil engineering. The engineer uses all of his knowledge in engineering sciences and mathematics to impress the client. The engineer also finds out exactly what the client is looking for so he can choose the proper materials and design. Once the client decides to hire the engineering firm the real fun starts. The preliminary design is full of many important choices. First is the decision of building materials like concrete, wood, or steel. Depending of the size and application of the building the engineer makes a decision on which material is the best. The next choice is which kind of building system to use. This is usually based on the terrain, location, and magnitude of the project. The entire design depends greatly on the main load carrying system. For example, while building a bridge you could choose cables, trusses, or arch. Each design works best with a certain material. Cable bridges carry their load through suspension so steel, with its high tension strength, is the best choice. Arch style bridges support the load from underneath so a material with high compression strength such as concrete would be the best choice. Finally any other major decisions such as funding are discussed. Now the engineer must start to calculate the demand and capacity of the structure and materials. This can be accomplished in the lab as well as with calculations. The key to this project being a success is in one simple relationship, D¡ÜC. This is stated as demand (load) is less than or equal to the capacity. Let¡¯s say the demand on a concrete column was calculated as 1500 lbs. The engineer must test and find which size column has...
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Client/Server technology is very common amongst most infrastructures. Most of you are already familiar or have at least used this technology. This technology consists of at least a client and a server; the two must also have a way of communicating with each other. The client can either host the application and do the processing locally or serve as an interface to an application running from a server, the server either hosts the application and does the processing locally or act as a file store. Either way both are required for the Client/Server technology. In the environment that I work in, one example of this technology is our Finance system. An application is installed on the local computer while the data lay on the server. When data is centrally managed ensuring that everyone's information is consistent. When the client serves as an interface to an application located on and processed by a server, the client is called a thin-client. A thin-client does not have a local hard drive, the only memory it has is RAM. The benefit of this configuration is that the thin-client is much cheaper than a regular personal computer. Deployment is much easier due to the fact that there is no operating system to configure and no software to install, all of this is served up by the server. Since the application is only on the server, updating the application is also a less timely process since you only have one system to worry about. If there is a bug in an application or corruption occurs, the troubleshooting process is simplified since the application is only on the server. Obviously there is a down-side to this configuration, what if the server fails completely? Single point of failure is the issue here, but of course there are solutions and one...
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Nature has always inspired scientists since time immemorial let it be machines that left the ground and took to the skies a century or so ago or small robots that mimic insect behavior. This is mainly because nature has improved on its design over millions of years and has reached a level of perfection that any humanly devised machine or plan could only dream about. Take for example the research done on social insects in the last fifty years that has shown the reasons behind an ant choosing the shortest path between its colony and the food source. Another example for such intelligence is in the case of termites building huge termite mounds with hardly any communication. The termite seems to follow a set of simple rules like, they, at first, search at random for a elevated spot, then drop some chewed dirt and keep dropping dirt on the any spot with any saliva on it. The termite does not need global knowledge or any more memory than is necessary to complete the sub-task in hand, it just needs to invoke a simple behavior dependent on the state of its immediate environment. Such a kind of Multi-agent distributed artificial intelligence is called collective intelligence or swarm intelligence or emergent behavior. Instead of applying complex algorithms to static datasets, through studying social insects we can see that simple algorithms can often do just as well when allowed to make systematic changes to the data in question. Other lessons that may help us make better algorithms as engineers is the idea of self organization. A self organizing (SO) system is any dynamic system from which order emerges entirely as a result of the properties of individual elements in the system, and not from external pressures. For example, a trail of ants exploiting a food source,...
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One way in which the world has changed in the last 20 years is the global issue of the worldwide communication revolution, which allows instantaneous communication across the globe, especially via the Internet. Telephones, mobile phones, Internet service providers and computers have developed allowing a new era of sophisticated technology and participating efficiently in the globalization process of the world. In fact, these reliable network connections particularly via the internet have contributed to a reform in the worldwide information system. For instance, internet service providers and telephones have contributed efficiently to this important access to the net. The internet connection has changed the global communication allowing immediate communication across the globe like chatting, managing our schedule, mailing which the best way to send and receive documents across the world in a few seconds. In the United States, 4 persons over 5 approximately gain access to the web and more than 60% of Americans own mobile phones and telephones. Furthermore, this communication innovation has developed powerfully by the immense utility of the internet and the cell phones. These technological inventions have modified and modernized several things. For example, online and mobile banking, international transactions, worldwide monetary system have contributed to the globalization procedure. We can consider this prodigious progress by taking the example of a board riding company of technology, Oracle. This corporation is doing in the order of 1,300 online transactions per hour every day; hence the value of the communication in the world development. Besides, the enormous progress in the computer and the telecommunications field has played a part in easing people life. Mobile phones became a requirement, internet a need for numerous branch of learning. These materials facilitated roughly the human beings life and comfort. We can today, from our home, be connected to the world, send and receive immediate message or...
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compare and contrast crucible and to my dear and loving husband. In our society many women tend to have different views and feelings upon their husbands. In the play "The Crucible", Elizabeth Proctor showed her care and love for her husband although she carried suspicion at the beginning. In the poem, "To My Dear and Loving Husband" by Anne Bradstreet, she uses different kinds of words to express her eternal love she had toward her husband. Elizabeth proves to be a wife that respects and loves her husband. The arguments presented between the husband and wife seems intensive, but this was a mean to show how much Elizabeth loved her husband. Arthur Miller uses the characterization of Elizabeth shown in Act II to illustrate how she cared for her husband. Even though her questioning seems to bring up arguments, John Proctor also has his own faults; adultery. Her suspicion toward her husband was created to symbolize how she intended to snatch John Proctor back to her side. Although she realize that her husband already has an affair with Abigail, she insisted to forgive him and tries to get his husband's heart back to her. At the end of the act during her seizure, Elizabeth says "I will fear nothing." During this moment it can be seen that Elizabeth is innocently accused by Abigail. Even though she was feared, she relieves her husband telling him that she will not fear anything. It was to keep her husband temper and anger from raging. We can all see how loving Elizabeth is to her husband. In the poem Anne Bradstreet uses different ways into transporting the idea of everlasting love she had with her husband. This poem not only reviews her love, but it also praise her husband. The idea of everlasting love until and beyond...
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Throughout many generations, love and lust has become a part of society that people cannot differentiate between the two feelings. To some, love is a passionate and exciting kind of feeling that only few share and to others, lust is the feeling that most everyone comes to feel though it is In todays society it seems that people are becoming more and more in tune with the technological advances all around them. It seems as though fewer people are reading the newspaper, much less watching the news on television. People are looking to other sources for their news on simple things suc We require that you submit one of your own papers. This helps getfreeessays.com grow and add new papers! ***All data submited becomes the property of getfreeessays.com and you give up all legal rights to it! We only accept original papers, do not submit copyrighted material!*** So you want access to our archive of free essays and term papers? All you need to do is register and verify your email address! Well, what are you waiting for? Acceptance Essays ( 51 ) Arts ( 1085 ) English ( 340 ) Foreign ( 73 ) History ( 150 ) Miscellaneous ( 242 ) Movies ( 128 ) Music ( 157 ) Novels ( 275 ) People ( 182 ) Politics ( 333 ) Religion ( 317 ) Science ( 183 ) Speeches ( 83 ) Sports ( 143 ) Technology ( 350 ) All fields in red are required! Baldwin and Douglass both used education as a guide to understanding their oppressive disposition in society. In the, "Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave", Douglass overcomes many barriers to learn how to read and write. In, "The Discovery of what One day after striking gold in Alaska, a lonesome miner came down from the mountains and walked into a saloon in the nearest town. "I'm lookin' for the meanest, toughest, roughest hooker in the...
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Windows CE is one of many Microsoft Windows operating systems. Although Microsoft does not explain the "CE," it is reported to have originally stood for "Consumer Electronics," also "Compact Edition." Occasionally one will hear the term "Pocket PC" used instead of Win CE. Some even think that these two names refer to two different operating systems. In fact, Pocket PC is the name for a mobile device class using a customized version of Microsoft Windows CE as its underlying operating system. Operation is similar, and both use the same synchronization software, so they can be supported with the same technical resources and staff training. Someone who wanted the smaller size and functionality of a palm-sized device can do so with a Pocket PC. Fundamentally, Win CE is an embedded 32-bit multitasking, multithreading operating system designed for mobile, and other space-constrained devices. It works on 12 different processor architectures and on over 180 different CPUs and is used in a broad range of devices including a variety of industrial and consumer products, such as cameras, telephones, set-top boxes, Internet-access devices, just to mention a few. Win CE is also offered as the operating system for the Auto PC, Microsoft's concept of controlling applications (such as selecting radio channels) while driving, using interactive speech technology. Windows XP In the latter half of 2001, Microsoft introduced its newest operating system, Windows XP. The "XP" is for experience, which is what MS was seeking to provide. Microsoft wanted to provide a new, improved, greater, and more pleasurable experience for the computer user. Windows XP is specifically for the Personal Computer user, and has two versions, Home for the single computer user, and Professional for the business, or multiple computer users. Professional is more suited to the college student also, because it readily will access Windows 2000 that...
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Introduction The word e-business is used quite frequently today but what exactly is e-business? According to Wikipedia.com, electronic business refers to any information system or applications that empower business processes. This is accomplished most often with web technologies. E-business can include internal business systems such as, customer relationship management and employee information portals; enterprise communication and collaboration such as e-mail; and electronic commerce such as online transaction processing. E-business can also have different kinds of users. Examples include all users of the Internet, only employees on the intranet, or a specified group of users of an extranet. Abilities of E-Business The Internet has created both opportunities and threats that all companies will need to confront to remain viable businesses in the new economy. According to Joslyn, "changes in consumer attitudes have been fueled by the increasing access and availability of information, as a result of the Internet". In healthcare, informed consumers are both better enabled and are demanding to be more involved with decision making that involves their health or that of a loved ones (Joslyn, 2001). To respond to consumer needs, healthcare providers must overcome uncertainty and recognize the disadvantages of maintaining the status quo. According to a study by Andersen, e-business could help eliminate the two to seven percent providers overpay medical and surgical suppliers, increase the number of transactions completed using e-commerce, reduce manual processing and rework, and the real-time visibility of transactions will reduce response time. In the healthcare industry most of the e-business uses by providers have been aimed at replacing administrative functions previously performed by telephone or postal mail. Examples of this are, answering patient questions, performing follow up to previous office visits, providing test results, scheduling appointments, and requesting prescription refills. Group Health Cooperative HMO based in Madison, Wisconsin launched a progressive e-business application in October of 2003 called...
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Computer Aided Machining (CAM) http://www.mastercam.com http://www.mastercam.com What is it? CAM, (Computer-Aided Manufacturing). To use computers to manufacture a product. With CAM, a product such as a mold for pair of sunglasses is designed with a CAD (Computer Aided Design) program and machined using a CAM program. Machines that use CAM programming systems are called C.N.C. machines (Computer Numerical Control). Who is affected? With the introduction of new technologies, machinists are rapidly changing their skills and are required to master new forms of knowledge and new operational skills. CNC involves the introduction into machining of multipurpose machines by electronic commands executed through a computer program. C.N.C. programming includes a broad range of techniques used in manufacturing. Skills that are needed are knowledge of manufacturing processes, metallurgy, math, and drafting. Such a background can provide a base from which students may pursue a degree in manufacturing engineering technology or mechanical engineering. The main types of machine tools that utilize CAM programming systems are: Machining Centers (both horizontal & vertical), Lathes, Boring Machines, Wire EDM (Electric Discharge Machine), Laser machines, Water jet, and Routers. Figure #1 Figure #2 Figure #3 Figure #4 Screen shots from http://www.mastercam.com Figure 1- shows the finish product, a pair of sunglasses. Figure 2- shows one side of the mold being produced on the computer screen. Figure 3- shows figure 2 actually machined Figure 4- shows the other side of the mold while it is being cut on a C.N.C. machine. The following is a breakdown of programming a basic part using a CAM programming system. (Geoshape) This button allows you to select the geometry you draw in CAD and have CAM turn that geometry into usable construction lines so that tool paths can be generated. (Start Pont Edit) This button allows you to select the lead-in and lead-out points for the router bit to use on your part. (Tools) This button allows you...
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Does your child know how to send an email? Does he know how to connect to Yhaoo.com page? What about typing in Microsoft Word, an assignment from school? Many children don't. We are moving into a computerized world, and that will force us to use the computer and internet in everyday life. Even in basic things like buying food at the supermarket. That's why I think every child in the state should be given Computer and Internet classes. Technology is improving everyday, everything is becoming more and more self sufficient, and soon we won't be able to do important things if we won't know how to use the computer. In some stores like Home Depot, Target and Safeway you already have to scan the products yourself. Knowing how to use a computer shouldn't make it a problem. If your child has an assignment to do, and need to go to the library to look through books, he will have to know how to use a computer in order to search for the books she/his is looking for. What if your child's handwriting is legible? It will be necessary for him to know how to use Microsoft Word, so he can type and print his assignments. The assignments will be neat and much more fun to read for his teacher. He will also be able to check his spelling with program, and it will tell him what his mistakes are and correct them. After a few works done he would type so fast that you won't be able to sit down by the time he will finish typing. Ok, so he knows how to use the computer and he is super in typing. But unfortunately your child gets the flu, and can't make it to class to hand in the assignment on...
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Since World War II (WWII), the funding of scientific research by the Department of Defense (DoD) in America has remained the first priority of federal research funds. During WWII, the DoD created agencies and linkages that provided billions of dollars to universities and corporations to research and design the weapons that would win the war and wage future wars. Among these weapons were most notably the atomic bomb, the proximity fuse, missile technology and radar. Breakthroughs in electronics during the war led to the modification of anti-aircraft guns. Analogue computers were used to calculate the firing times and trajectories necessary to hit high-speed targets like fighter-bomber aircraft and the German V-1 rocket. Computers were used to calculate artillery tables that solved complicated engineering problems, decoded enemy communications, and opened up the future of technological war.  In military spending nowadays there has been a great need for a cost-effective mean of maintaining troop readiness . Soldiers are required to spend significant time training in extremely complicated and expensive military vehicles. Live training inside battle tanks, aircraft and ships can be prohibitively expensive and not to mention dangerous. Computer simulation can provide much of the same benefits as live training without the associated cost. The primary goal of military simulation is to provide high fidelity representation of a real battlefield. With the advantages of distributed simulation, thousands of military vehicles can be represented in the same simulation. Current technology has allowed live and virtual forces to be seamlessly integrated into a single battlefield. For example, a live platoon leader and his crew can drive an actual tank on a training range at Fort Knox while leading a group of virtual tanks being run on a simulator elsewhere. The live and virtual tank operators are able to see and shoot each other. It appears...
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Computer animation is done for various reasons. It is used to manipulate existing films, cartoons or other graphics, to the creation of three-dimensional (3-D) worlds in the computer. In the last few years, computer animators have created special effects in movies, such as talking toys and a doomed ship and its passengers. Much like traditional animators, computer animators manipulate graphics to create the illusion of movement, but unlike traditional animators, they use computers. A typical computer animation project goes through several stages. First, an animator works both alone and with colleagues to brainstorm new ideas. Next, he or she produces storyboards, which visually outline how proposed ideas can be developed. Once an idea is selected, a computer animator creates the graphics that will appear in the animated segment. Finally, the graphics are animated. A lot of computer animation is done for the entertainment industry. The movie "Jurassic Park" used computer animation to create very realistic dinosaurs, and most of the extras on board "Titanic" were computer animated, as was the ship. Computer animators often simulate scientific ideas or processes that could never be clearly shown in reality. Architectural firms employ computer animation to create realistic, 3-D models of structures that allow the potential buyer to take a virtual tour of a building. The incomes of computer animators can range from approximately $10,000 to $60,000 a year, depending on how much experience an animator has. For example, an experienced computer animator makes between $30,000 and $50,000 a year. Animators who take on upper-level, managerial positions can make up to $70,000 a year. Computer animators work for various people, such as film and video production companies, independent filmmakers, television stations, computer game developers/producers and advertising companies. Some animators work full-time, but for the most, work on a contract basis. Each contract is negotiated separately,...
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Reason for design Data transfer over cable is a very important aspect of today's communication devices. Most cables used for data transfer in 1997 were used only for television purposes, and the direction of data flow was downstream, or from the head-end to the station. If this setup could be altered, then cables could also be used to receive data from stations, or upstream flow. In order for data to be transferable (able to go upstream as well as downstream), the cable must be upgraded to a combination of optical fiber and coaxial cable, or simply a hybrid fiber coax (HFC). In this concept lies the ability for high-speed digital data transfer between the head-end and the stations. The authors of this paper explore their idea for a media access protocol that can efficiently accomplish this task – high-speed digital data transfer over a cable. How it works The concept to do this is simple, and involves two key players. One is the Head-End (HE). The HE can be thought of as the computer under the administrator's control. It is the main coordinator, distributor, and basically the "boss" of the whole system. The other key player in this system is the Station. There can be one or more of these (usually more than one), and they are pretty much individual systems connected to the HE. They can be thought of as individual computers attached to the internet (which in turn is basically controlled by the HE), or as any other devices that have the purpose of sending and receiving data. These stations are dependent on the HE, and the HE itself is independent of the stations. The authors of this paper devised an efficient protocol they called a medium access control (MAC) protocol to accomplish their goals. The concept to understand the most...
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Aerodynamics Aerodynamics is the branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids. The Latin word for aero means air, and the Latin word for dynamics means power. Steady aerodynamics this term is used to describe situations where there is no rapid change in properties over time. For example, an aircraft cruising straight and level in the upper atmosphere, well above where any gust can reach it. When such situations are being analyzed, a lot of effort can be saved by neglecting terms in the equations, which describe rates of change of the flow properties or forces at any point on the aircraft. Time-accurate strong-interaction models for the coupling of a boundary-layer method with a method for three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible potential flow about elastically deforming wings are developed. The investigation of the flow behind on oscillating airfoil has shown that two waves of convected vortices can be distinguished: One wave convected at, roughly, the outside uniform velocity; and an inner wave in the core of the wake originating at the trailing edge which is convected at a much lower speed. At a certain distance behind the airfoil there is a partially destructive interference, which depends on the reduced frequency. For the flow above a circle-cylinder it is shown that giving small symmetric displacements from its equilibrium position to a vortex pair positioned near the circle-cylinder, periodic oscillations set in. Expressions for closed orbits and their periods are obtained. For the large amplitude case the vortex trajectories are calculated numerically. For a circle-cylinder with strakes the vortex motions may be periodic, quasi-periodic or the vortices may be swept away, depending on the initial conditions. From the equations of motion of flexible slender bodies with constant crosssections...
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