TO HACK OR NOT TO HACK The definition of a hacker, according to the Hacker's Dictionary is, "a person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities." Most hackers think of hacking as a game in which their mind is up against that of the system designers. The Internet allows the hackers to take files, programs, passwords, and other information from users that are using it. They use this as a tool to make it easier to beat a system. Most hackers start hacking as a way to create mischief and to have fun, but with time it may become an addiction and may cause serious run ins with the law. There are many methods of hacking; one of the more familiar methods is the method in which they try to crack a password with a valid user name that they have acquired. Once they have a user name they can attempt to crack the password. It may seem that it would take a long time to crack the code but with today's technology it is possible to acquire software that could test 500 000 passwords a minute. Within no time the hacker would be able to gain access into the system, and once they are in, they could change passwords and also change the configuration of the system potentially causing a lot of damage to the system if they see fit. Another method of hacking is the method in which the hacker, "listens in" on the computers communication. This is possible with the easy download of software that logs every keystroke of the keyboard. They can then look over everything that was typed into the computer and find out what user names and passwords are used by the computer user. They can then gain access and...
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Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 OVERVIEW 4 BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 5 GROUP ASSIGNMENT 6 INITIALIZATION 8 CONSTANTS 9 INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS 10 ELSE-IF 13 SWITCH 14 LOOPS 15 EXAMPLES OF LOOPS 16 BREAK, CONTINUE 18 RETURN 19 FUNCTION DEFINITION: 21 VOID FUNCTIONS 22 FUNCTIONS RETURNING A VALUE 23 OVERVIEW Algorithms: A step-by-step sequence of instructions that describes how to perform a computation. Answers the question "What method will you use to solve this computational problem?" Flowcharts: Provides a pictorial representation of the algorithm using the symbols. Structure Charts: Provides a pictorial representation of the modules contained in the program. Programming Style: Standard form: Function names starts in column 1 and is placed with the required parentheses on a line by itself. The opening brace of the function body follows on the next line and is placed under the first letter of the function name. The closing brace is placed by itself in column 1 as the last line of the function. The final form of your programs should be consistent and should always serve as an aid to the reading and understanding of your programs. Comments: Explanatory remarks made within a program. Help clarify what the complete program is about, what a specific group of statements is meant to accomplish, or what one line is intended to do. Top-Down Program Development: 1. Determine the desired output items that the program must produce. 2. Determine the input items 3. Design the program as follows: a. Select an algorithm for transforming the input items into the desired outputs. b. Check the chosen algorithm, by hand, using specific input values. 4. Code the algorithm into C. 5. Test the program using selected test data. BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT Space set aside for the variable: Characters 1 byte (8 bits) Pointers 4 bytes Integers 2 bytes (16 bits) or 4 bytes (32 bits) Short int or short 2 bytes Unsigned int or unsigned 2 bytes Long Integers 4 bytes Floats 4 bytes(single precision, about 7 decimal places) Doubles 8...
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